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Class Three: Agency and Employment - Two Agency and Employment Law. Last week we spoke about: Introduction to Agency What is a Agency?

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class three agency and employment two agency and employment law
Class Three:

Agency and Employment - Two

Agency and Employment Law

slide2

Last week we spoke about:

  • Introduction to Agency
  • What is a Agency?
  • - A legal relationship (based in contract) where one party (the agent) is authorized to represent another party (the principal) in business dealings with third parties
  • Creation of the Agency Relationship
  • - Capacity, Formalities (Consent / Consideration / Writing) , and Modes (By Act of the Parties / By Operation of Law)
  • Authority
  • - Actual (How the Agent and Principal see the Authority): Express and Implied
  • - Apparent (How third parties see the Authority)
  • - Inherent (Situational Context of Authority): Agent turned loose
  • Ratification
  • - When an Agency Relationship is created after the Act
slide3

Tonight we will speak about:

  • The Agency Relationship: Liabilities and Duties
  • - Liabilities of Parties in Agency
  • Principal: Liable if Agent has Authority
  • Agent: Liable if doesn’t have authority or doesn’t disclose authority
  • - Duties of Parties in Agency
  • Duty: The Legal Concept of Duty
  • Remedies: What happens if breach of duty occurs
  • Employment Law
  • - What is Employment
  • Employment vs. Independent Contractor
  • - Employment at Will
  • Employment at Will vs. Employment Contracts
  • - Employment Regulation
  • Equal Opportunity: Federal Civil Rights Law, State Human Rights Law
  • Collective Bargaining: Federal NLRA, State Labor Law, Taylor Law
slide4

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
  • A. Generally
  • Having established that there is a valid contract entered into by an agent for her
  • principal, the next step is to determine who the parties to the contract are, and what
  • their rights and liabilities are under the contract.
  • 1. Third Party vs. Principal
  • The general rule is that if the agent had authority, the principal is liable to the third party.
  • 2. Third Party vs. Agent
  • Whether an agent can be held liable on a contract the agent enters into on behalf of the principal
  • depends on whether the principal was disclosed, partially disclosed, or undisclosed.
  • a. Disclosed Principal Situation
  • A disclosed principal is one whose existence and identity are known to the third party.
  • 1) Disclosed Principal Liable
  • A disclosed principal is always liable on a contract entered into by an authorized agent.
  • 2) Agent Generally Not Liable
  • A third party generally has no action against an agent in a disclosed principal situation because the contract
  • is with the principal. There are, however, certain well-recognized exceptions to this rule:
  • a) Intent of Parties
  • Where the intent of the parties is that the agent shall be a party to the contract, she will be held liable.
  • Note: One should examine the intent to determine if both the agent and the principal are to be held liable, or
  • the principal alone.
  • b) Agent's Implied Warranty of Authority
  • When an agent enters into a contract purportedly on behalf of a disclosed principal, the agent makes an
  • implied warranty of authority (i.e., a warranty that she has the authority that she purports to have). Thus,
  • although the agent generally is not liable in contract when she contracts for a disclosed principal, she may
  • nevertheless be held liable to the third party for breach of her implied warranty if she acted without
  • authority. For breach of warranty, she is liable to the third party for actual (not contract) damages.
slide5

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
  • A. Generally Continued
  • Having established that there is a valid contract entered into by an agent for her
  • principal, the next step is to determine who the parties to the contract are, and what
  • their rights and liabilities are under the contract.
  • 2. Third Party vs. Agent
  • Whether an agent can be held liable on a contract the agent enters into on behalf of the principal
  • depends on whether the principal was disclosed, partially disclosed, or undisclosed.
  • b. Partially Disclosed and Undisclosed Principal Situations
  • A partially disclosed principal is one whose existence, but not identity, is known to the third party.
  • Note: If the third party should have reasonably known that the person with whom he was dealing was acting for
  • a principal, he would be deemed to have known of the principal's existence. An undisclosed principal is
  • one whose existence and identity are unknown to the third party.
  • 1) Both Agent and Principal Liable
  • Both the agent and the principal are liable on a contract entered into by an authorized agent on behalf of a
  • partially disclosed or undisclosed principal.
  • 2) No Election to Hold Principal or Agent
  • The third party, upon learning the identity of the principal (and in the undisclosed principal situations also
  • learning of his existence), may hold the principal and agent liable. A judgment against either one is not a
  • bar to suit against the other except to the extent the judgment has been satisfied. [See U.C.C. §3-401]
  • 3) Undisclosed Principal Not Liable on Negotiable Instruments
  • Under the U.C.C., an undisclosed principal is not liable on a negotiable instrument executed by his
  • authorized agent.
slide6

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
  • A. Generally Continued
  • Having established that there is a valid contract entered into by an agent for her
  • principal, the next step is to determine who the parties to the contract are, and what
  • their rights and liabilities are under the contract.
  • 3. Right to Hold Third Party Liable on Contract
  • a. Disclosed Principal Situation-Principal May Enforce Contract
  • In a disclosed principal situation, only the principal, not the agent, may enforce the contract and hold the third
  • party liable.
  • b. Partially Disclosed and Undisclosed Principal Situation - Principal or Agent May Enforce Contract
  • In partially disclosed and undisclosed principal situations, either the principal or agent may enforce the contract
  • and hold the third party liable. However, if the agent enforces the contract, the principal is entitled to all of the
  • rights and benefits thereunder.
  • 1 Situations Where Principal May Not Enforce Contract
  • Some situations exist, however, where the principal will not have a right to specifically enforce the contract
  • against the third party.
  • a) Fraudulent Concealment of Principal's Identity
  • Where the agent has fraudulently concealed the identity of the principal, the contract will not specifically
  • be enforceable by the principal and, indeed, the third party has a right to rescission. The majority of courts
  • hold that there must have been an affirmative misrepresentation by the agent for this exception to operate.
  • b) Increase of Burden to Third Party
  • Where performance by the principal would impose an undue burden on the third party (by virtue of the fact
  • that it is the principal and not the agent to whom performance must be made), the contract may not be
  • specifically enforced and the third party will have a right to rescission.
  • Note: Agent Adam, on behalf of an undisclosed principal, Preston, enters into a "requirements" contract
  • with Sam. In fact, the requirements of Principal Preston are substantially greater than Sam believed
  • the requirements of Adam to be. Sam may avoid this contract.
slide7

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
  • A. Generally Continued
  • 4. Specifically – Liability of Agent to Third Person
      • An agent who makes a contract with a third person within the scope of authority has
      • no personal liability on the contract (as the liability is with the principal);
      • A person purporting to act as an agent for a principal warrants by implication that
      • there is an existing principal with legal capacity and that the principal has authorized
      • the agent to act.
      • If the person acting as an agent is not authorized, such agent is then liable for any
      • loss caused to the third person for breach of these warranties.
  • 5. Specifically – Liability of Principal to Third Person
      • An agent takes on the assumption of liability for contracts signed by an agent, when
      • the principal appoints the agent.
      • Upon the execution of the contract, if the agent wishes to avoid personal liability,
      • they should sign the principal’s name and then put “by” or “per” agent’s name.
      • Agent’s Statements: A principal is bound by an agents statements when the agent
      • makes such statements while acting within the scope of actual or apparent authority.
      • Agent’s Knowledge: A principal is imputed (deemed bound) by an agent’s
      • knowledge gained while acting within the scope of actual or apparent authority.
slide8

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
slide9

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
slide10

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
slide11

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
slide12

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Liabilities of the Parties
slide13

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 1. General Rules
  • While the agency relationship exists, the agent owes the principal the duties of:
    • (1) being loyal,
    • (2) obeying all lawful instructions,
    • (3) exercising reasonable care,
    • (4) accounting for all property or money belonging to the principal, and
    • (5) informing the principal of all facts relating to the agency that are relevant to the principal’s interests.
    • While the agency exists, the principal owes the agent the duties of:
  • (1) To compensate the agent as agreed;
  • (2) To indemnify and protect the agent against claims, liabilities, and expenses
  • expenses incurred in discharging the duties assigned by the principal;
  • (3) To act in accordance with the express and implied terms of any contract
  • between the principal and an agent;
  • (4) Due to the fiduciary relationship, a principal owes his/her agent a duty of good faith
  • and fair dealing, however, a principal can be relieved of contractual obligations by
  • an agent’s prior breach of contract; and
  • (5) When an agent acts within the scope of actual authority, the principal is liable to
  • indemnify the agent for payments made during the course of the relationship
  • irrespective of whether the expenditure was expressly authorized or merely
  • necessary in promoting the principal’s business
slide14

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 2. What is Duty
  • a. Duty Defined:
  • Black’s Law Dictionary defines “DUTY” as:
  • 1. A person’s action which is exactly conformable to the laws which
  • require the person to obey them; or
  • 2. A legal or moral obligation; or
  • 3. Conduct or service which is obligatory; or
  • 4. A mandatory obligation to perform.
  • b. Simple definition of “Duty”:
  • “A legally recognized obligation
  • requiring certain conduct
  • by one person to another.”
slide15

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 3. Duties of Agent to Principal
  • The agent has whatever duties are expressly stated in their contract with their principal.
  • Additionally, in the absence of anything contrary in the agreement, the agent has three
  • major duties implied by law: loyalty, obedience, and care.
  • a. Duty of Loyalty
  • The fiduciary duty of an agent to his principal is one of undivided loyalty. If an agent has
  • interests adverse to the interests of his principal (e.g., self-dealing or obtaining secret profits),
  • then such agent will be seen as in breach this duty by failing to disclose.
  • b. Duty of Obedience
  • 1 General Rule
  • An agent must obey all reasonable directions of his principal. While the principal may well be
  • liable for the agent's acts in violation of directions (apparent or inherent authority), the agent
  • will be liable to the principal for any loss that the principal suffers.
  • 2. What Constitutes Reasonable Directions
  • Reasonableness depends on custom, the nature of the work, and contractual understanding.
  • Example: A janitor would be expected to follow minute instructions regarding his daily work effort
  • while an attorney would not normally be expected to follow his client's directions as to how
  • to draft a complaint.
slide16

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 3. Duties of Agent to Principal Continued
  • The agent has whatever duties are expressly stated in their contract with their principal.
  • Additionally, in the absence of anything contrary in the agreement, the agent has three
  • major duties implied by law: loyalty, obedience, and care.
  • c. Duty of Reasonable Care
  • 1. Compensated Agent
  • An agent owes a duty to his principal to carry out his agency with reasonable care, in light of
  • local community standards and taking into account any special skills of the agent.
  • 2. Gratuitous Agent
  • The modem trend is to hold a gratuitous or uncompensated agent to the degree of care
  • customary in the community for one undertaking similar tasks without compensation. In most
  • situations, this results in no difference between the standard for paid and unpaid agents.
  • 3. Duty to Notify
  • An agent has a duty to notify his principal of all matters that come to the agent's knowledge
  • affecting the subject of the agency. The effect of this rule is that notice of all such matters
  • coming to the attention of the agent is imputed to the principal.
  • Example: Notice will not be imputed under certain circumstances, e.g., where the agent acts in their
  • own interest and adversely to the principal, or where the agent and the third party attempt
  • to commit a fraud on the principal.
slide17

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 4. Remedies of the Principal
  • The principal has a variety of remedies against the agent for breach of duty.
  • a. Action for Damages
  • An agent may be liable either for breach of contract or in tort.
  • 1. Breach of Contract-Compensated Agents
  • A compensated agent may be held liable for damages suffered by the principal as a result of
  • breach of contract. All of the remedies and methods of calculating damages that apply in
  • normal breach of contract situations apply to a breach of contract for a compensated agent
  • as well.
  • 2. Tort-All Agents
  • An agent, whether compensated or gratuitous, may be held liable for damages resulting from
  • their misuse of the principal's property, whether intentional or negligent, or because of
  • misperfomance, or failure to perform.
  • b. Action for Secret Profits
  • Where an agent breaches her fiduciary duty and secretly profits, the principal may recover the
  • actual profits or property held by the agent.
  • Example: Alan the Agent is employed full-time by Paula the Principal to purchase timberland for Paula in a
  • designated area. Alan purchases some land in the designated area for himself with his own money.
  • The law will find that Alan holds the land as constructive trustee for Paula and must convey it to
  • Paula at cost.
  • Example: Alan the Agent is employed as a clerk in Paula the Principal's retail store. All goods are marked with
  • a fixed price. Alan sells a $20 radio to a customer for $25. Alan must give Paula the additional $5
  • even though Paula has suffered no injury.
slide18

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 5. Duties of Subagent to Principal and Agent
  • Where a subagent has been appointed with proper authority, he too will owe the
  • principal the same duties as would the agent.
  • a. Liability of Agent for Subagent Breaches
  • An agent will be held liable to the principal for breaches of a subagent. This is so even though the
  • agent exercised diligence and good faith in appointing the subagent.
  • b. Liability of Subagent to Agent
  • 1. General Rule
  • The subagent owes the agent the same duties they owe the principal; thus, they will be liable to
  • the agent for their breaches.
  • 2. Unauthorized Subagent
  • Where the subagent has been appointed without authority, the subagent does not owe any
  • duties to the principal. The agent alone will be responsible to the principal for performance of
  • the agency duties and for any loss sustained because of the subagent's conduct, with the
  • agent's only recourse being against the subagent.
slide19

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 6. Duties of Principal to Agent
  • a. Duties Imposed by Operation of Law
  • 1. Compensation
  • The principal owes the agent a duty to compensate her reasonably for their services unless,
  • of course, the agent has agreed to act gratuitously. It should be noted that a principal has
  • no duty to compensate a subagent, even if the agent was authorized to hire subagents,
  • unless the principal agrees otherwise.
  • 2. Reimbursement
  • The principal owes the agent (and any authorized subagent) a duty to indemnify them for all
  • expenses or losses reasonably incurred in discharging any authorized duties, including any
  • legal liability incurred by the agent in acting for her principal, unless the loss was due solely
  • to the agent's fault.
  • b. Duties Imposed by Contract
  • The principal also has a duty to comply with the terms of any contract between him and the
  • agent. Such a contract can, however, vary the terms of the common law duties.
  • c. Duty to Cooperate
  • As a general rule, the principal should cooperate with his agent to help her carry out agency
  • functions. Thus, the principal must provide the agent with the requisite opportunities and not
  • unreasonably interfere with the agent's performance. Accordingly, the scope of the duty is
  • measured by what is reasonably contemplated by the parties.
  • Example: If Patty Principal hires Arthur Agent for $500 a month to sell widgets, Patty has no obligation to
  • provide Arthur with widgets to sell. If Arthur is to be paid by commission however (or Arthur's
  • compensation is otherwise based on the results of her work), it is reasonable for Arthur to assume
  • that Patty will provide him with an opportunity to work, and so must provide Arthur with widgets.
  • Example: If Patty Principal hires Arthur Agent to sell his empty factory building on commission, Patty cannot
  • then lease the building to a third party.
slide20

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 7. Remedies of Agent
  • a. Breach of Contract
  • A compensated agent has the usual remedies for breach of contract. An agent does
  • however have a duty to mitigate (lessen) their damages
  • Example:Anna the Agent executes an employment contract with Phillip the Principal. Under the 10-year
  • written contract Anna will be provided with a salary of $40,000 per year. Phillip fires Anna after two
  • years without cause. Anna cannot spend the next eight years in Acapulco on vacation and collect her
  • money. She must actively seek other employment (in an attempt to mitigate her damages).
  • b. Agent's Lien
  • An agent has a possessory lien (i.e., a claim against the principal's property held by
  • the agent) for any money due to the agent, unless the contract provides otherwise.
  • Example: Alma the Agent purchases coins for Pherb the Principal with her own funds. Pherb does not
  • reimburse Alma for the cost of the coins. If Alma still has possession of the coins, she has a lien
  • upon them until Pherb pays her for the same.
slide21

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AGENCY

  • Duties and Liabilities Between Agents and Principals
  • 8. Real Estate Brokers’ Contracts
  • a. Exclusive Contract
  • An exclusive contract entitles a real estate broker to a commission if the realtor or anyone else
  • (e.g., the owner or another broker) produces a buyer who is ready, willing, and able to buy the
  • real estate.
  • It should be noted, however, that sometimes the owner will specifically reserve the
  • right to find his own buyer without having to pay the broker a commission (this is known as a
  • nonexclusive contract, see below).
  • b. Nonexclusive Contract (Subject to Prior Sale)
  • A nonexclusive contract (or listing agreement) normally entitles a real estate broker to
  • compensation when she has produced a buyer who is ready, willing, and able to buy, provided
  • the property has not already been sold (i.e., the owner has the right to find his own buyer before
  • the broker does).
  • Under a nonexclusive contract, the broker is entitled to their commission when they produce a
  • ready, willing, and able buyer even though the sale is not consummated. Occasionally,
  • however, a nonexclusive contract will specifically provide that the commission is due only when
  • the sale is consummated. In such a case, the broker is not entitled to compensation until the
  • conveyance (not the contract of sale) has been made.
  • c. Right to Compensation
  • A real estate broker or salesperson must be licensed to enforce a claim for commissions. This
  • applies to full- or part-time brokers and salespersons. [See NYS Real Property Law §442-d]
slide22

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 1. What is Employment
  • a. Employment Defined:
  • Black’s Law Dictionary defines “Employment” as:
  • 1. Act of employing or state of being employed; or
  • 2. That which engages or occupies; or
  • 3. That which consumes time or attention; or
  • 4. An occupation, profession, trade, post or business.
  • b. Simple definition of “Employment” is:
  • “An act to engage or hire one’s service,
  • in return for payment for such service.”
  • c. Labor Law Definition:
  • A relationship where someone is “permitted or suffered to work”
slide23

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 2. Employment v. Independent Contractor
  • 1. The Employer- Employee Relationship
  • a. Definitional Standards
  • 1. Independent Contractor
  • A clear example of an independent contractor is one who has a calling of his own, is
  • hired to do a particular job, is paid a given amount for that job, and who follows his own
  • discretion in carrying out the job. A principal has no right to control the manner and
  • method in which an independent contractor performs the job.
  • 2. Employee
  • A clear example of an employee is one who works full-time for his employer, is
  • compensated on a time basis, and is subject to the supervision of the principal in
  • the details of his work. An employer has the right to control the manner and
  • method in which an employee performs the job.
  • b. Determination of Right to Control
  • There are many cases where it is not clear whether the relationship is one of employer- employee or principal-independent contractor. The single overriding factor in
  • determining whether a person is an employee is whether the principal (employer) has
  • the right to control the manner and method by which the individual performs his tasks.
slide24

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 3. Employment at Will v. Employment Contract
  • 1. Employment at Will Concept
  • New York State is an Employment at Will state.
  • This means that an employer can pay the employee what they wish (so long as it is above
  • minimum wage), provide what benefits (if any) that they wish, and dismiss (fire) an employee for
  • any reason or no reason as long as it is not an illegal reason (such as a violation of the Federal
  • Civil Rights law or New York State Human Rights law).
  • 2. Employment Contract
  • An exception to the employment of will doctrine is where the employee and employer have an
  • employment contract. In such instance the contract terms will govern the parameters of the employment. A collectively bargained employee is determined to have an employment contract
  • as negotiated and approved by the employer and the employee’s representative (union).
  • 3. When it is unclear if there is an Employment Contract
  • Under certain circumstances whether an employment contact exists can be unclear. Under
  • such circumstances, courts have imposed other documents (such as an employee manual) to
  • constitute an employment contract.
slide25

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 4. Employment Regulation
  • 1. Equal Opportunity
  • A. Federal Civil Rights Law:
  • Federal Civil Rights Law Prohibit Employment Discrimination on the basis of race, color,
  • religion, sex, or national origin, age, gender, disability and pregnancy. Such discrimination
  • can be contested by means of a civil action under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983.
  • B. State Human Rights Law
  • Section 290 of the NYS Executive Law provides that the “opportunity to obtain employment
  • without discrimination because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation,
  • military status, sex, marital status, or disability, is hereby recognized as and declared to be a
  • civil right.” Such rights can be enforced through both civil and governmental actions.
  • 2. Collective Bargaining
  • A. National Labor Relations Act
  • The National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act – 29 U.S.C Section 151 et seq.) that provides that private sector employees have a right to collectively bargain.
  • B. State Labor Relations Act
  • New York has a nearly identical law (Article 20 of the State Labor Law)
  • C. Taylor Law
  • This New York Law – Article 14 of the State Civil Service Law grants public sector
  • employees the right to collectively bargain.
  • 3. Heath and Safety Laws
  • Both the Federal and State Government have health and safety laws (Such as OSHA and the
  • Labor Law) which regulate workplace conditions, minimum wages, and hours of employment.
slide26

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide27

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide28

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide29

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide30

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide31

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide32

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide33

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide34

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide35

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide36

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide37

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide38

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide39

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide40

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide41

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide42

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide43

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide44

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide45

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide46

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP

  • EMPLOYMENT:
  • 5. Additional Issues in Employment
slide47

Thank you for Coming

  • Bonus Questions of the Day
  • For next time – Read Chapter 41
  • We are a hot bench.
  • Questions.