Download
a study of high temperature superconductivity n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
A Study of High Temperature Superconductivity PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
A Study of High Temperature Superconductivity

A Study of High Temperature Superconductivity

344 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

A Study of High Temperature Superconductivity

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. A Study of High Temperature Superconductivity With Chemical Substitutions in the 123 and 2223 Systems Josiah Austin, Renee Catalano, Logan Finger, Robert Haag, Noah Huffman, Timothy Keebler, Madison Kratzer PGSS 31 July 2014 Background courtesy of: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ClOaNjbUPg8/TxBearSJARI/AAAAAAAAAbs/OwFK67eamHY/s1600/electricity.jpg

  2. History of Superconductors • 1911- Mercury superconductor • 1933- Meissner effect • 1957- BCS theory • 1987- First high-Tc superconductor (YBa2Cu3O7) • Modern applications • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) • MagLev (Magnetic Levitation) Train • Particle accelerators Meissner effect

  3. BCS Theory Explained • Interaction of electrons with the lattice structure - Cooper pairs • Condensation of electron velocity-space - Bose-Einstein Condensate • Energy gap - Transition temperature - Lattice vibrations • Type I vs Type II Cooper pairs interacting webs.mn.catholic.edu.au

  4. Tested Compounds • Yttrium compounds • YBa2Cu3O7-x • Rare Earth metal substitutions • Other substitutions YBa2Cu3O7-x (courtesy of B. Mills)

  5. Bismuth compounds • Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x • Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x (courtesy of James Slezak)

  6. Substitutions • Dy and Sm complete substitutions for Y in Y-123 • Sr substitutions (complete and 1 mol : 1 mol) in Y-123 • Cu doping at 90% Cu and 80% Cu using Co and Ni in Y-123 • Synthesis of Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3Ox and Bi2Ba2CaCu2Ox using multi-phased base compound

  7. Methods • Stoichiometry • Synthesis • Press • Firing process • 1-2-3 firing • Specialized bismuth firing • Final annealing

  8. X-Ray Diffraction • Cathode rays • Pattern of diffraction Image courtesy of http://web.pdx.edu/~pmoeck/phy381/Topic5a-XRD.pdf

  9. Diffraction Process https://fys.kuleuven.be/iks/nvsf/experimental-facilities/x-ray-diffraction-2013-bruker-d8-discover

  10. X-Ray Diffractor

  11. Important Structures Orthorhombic Tetragonal

  12. Resistivity • Resistivity • The ability of a substance to oppose the flow of electrons • Resistance vs. Resistivity ρ = R A/L • Resistance testing in the lab

  13. Results (X-Ray Diffraction) • Several 1,2,3 orthorhombic structures observed • Multi-phase barium precursors formed into single phase bismuth compounds

  14. Initial Results

  15. YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x)

  16. DyBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x)

  17. Ba(2)Ca(2)Cu(3)O(x)

  18. Comparison of Compounds

  19. Tetragonal Decomposition YBa(2)Cu(2.7)Co(0.3)O(7) & YBa(2)Cu(2.7)Ni(0.3)O(7)

  20. Results (Resistivity) • Compounds that superconducted: • YBa2Cu3O7,DyBa2Cu3O7, YSrBaCu3O7 • Effects of substitutions on resistivity • Changes its critical temperature • In conducted tests, temperatures were lowered • Effects on current carrying capacity

  21. mV

  22. Discussion • Successes: • Parent compound • Dysprosium substitute • Strontium (1 mol: 1 mol) doped compound • Failures: • Nickel and Cobalt partially doped for Copper • Strontium and Samarium full substitutes • Radius/Charge disparity • Bismuth substitutes • Heating problems • Sr vs. Ba http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/08/16_Lanzara.shtml

  23. Conclusions • The experiment succeeded in producing two new high-Tc superconductors, YSrBaCu3O7 and DyBa2Cu3O7. • Sources of error and limitations

  24. Any Questions?

  25. References (n.d.). Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from Science in School : http://www.scienceinschool.org/repository/images/issue10lhchow23_large.jpg Bobroff, J. (2011). Resistance in Superconductors. (P. Szczeciner, Trans.) Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://www.supraconductivite.fr/en/index.php?p=supra-resistance-supra Coalition for the Commercial Applications of Superconductors. (n.d.). Superconductivity . Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://www.ccas-web.org/pdf/ccas_brochure_web.pdf Current Carrying Capacity of Copper Conductors. (n.d.). Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.seas.gwu.edu%2F~ecelabs%2Fappnotes%2FPDF%2Ftechdat%2FCCCofCC.pdf&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNGDyL0t1o9b_KEuhQFAEit_ia-cDw Guire, E. D. (2012, 1 31). Historic January 1987: YBCO superconductors discovered and Super Bowl XXI. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from The American Ceramic Society: (http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/characterization-1/historic-january-1987-ybco-superconductors-discovered-and-super-bowl-xxi) Likharev, K. (1996, 5). RSFQ: Concept, Status, and Prospects. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://pavel.physics.sunysb.edu/RSFQ/Research/WhatIs/rsfqwte1.html National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. (n.d.). Maglev Trains: On Track with Superconductivity. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from Magnet Lab: http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/magnetacademy/superconductivity101/maglev.html Nave, R. (n.d.). Superconductor Applications. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/scapp.html#c5 Slichter, C. (n.d.). Introduction to the History of Superconductivity. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://www.aip.org/history/mod/superconductivity/01.html

  26. References Truscott, B. (2006, 6 20). Low-Temperature Superconductors. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2006/Truscott/images/meissner.png Uses of Superconductors. (n.d.). Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from Superconductivity: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2000/igrant/uses.html William C. Shiel Jr., M. F. (n.d.). Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retrieved 7 28, 2014, from MedicineNet: http://www.medicinenet.com/mri_scan/article.htm Nicholas, R. (n.d.). Superconductivity-superconnotes10. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from Nicholas Research Group: www-rjn.physics.ox.ac.uk/lectures/superconnotes10.pdf The Meissner Effect. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2014, from hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu/hbase/solids.meis.html Clark, C. M., & Dutrow, L. B. (n.d.). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). Retrieved July 28, 2014, from Geochemical Instrumentation and Analysis: serc.carleton.edu/research_education/geochemsheets/techniques/XRD.html Supraconductivite [Superconductivity]. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2014, from Superconductivity website: http://www.supraconductivite.fr/en/ index.php?p=supra-explication-cooper (2007, July 14). Resistance and Resistivity [Transcript]. Lecture presented at University of Texas, Austin.

  27. References Barry, T. J. (n.d.). BCS Theory of Superconductivity. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from A Path Without Resistance website: http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/ 212_fall2003.web.dir/T.J_Barry/bcstheory.html Hock, E. J. (2006, January 18). "Super" YBCO. Retrieved from Superconductors.ORG:www.superconductors.org/YBCO_hot.htm Briggs, A., Bellamy, B. A., Denton, I. E., & Perks, J. M. (1990). Preparation of single phase bismuth-based 2212 and 2223 superconducting oxides, and quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of 2212 and 2223 phase mixtures. Journal of the Less Common Metals, 559-567. Herrera, M. U., & Sarmago, R. V. (2004). Synthesis of Pb-doped Bi-2223 from Pb-doped Bi-2212 via partial melting. Ceramics International, 1611-1614. Goyal, A. (2007). Superconducting YBCO Conductors: The RABiTS Approach. Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Technology, 1-5. Dorris, S. E., Prorok, B. C., Lanagan, M. T., Sinha, S., & Poeppel, R. B. (1993). Synthesis of highly pure bismuth-2223 by a two-powder process. Physica C: Superconductivity, 66-74. Choi, C. Q. (2008). Iron Exposed as High-Temperature Superconductor. Scientific American, 1-2.

  28. References Hoffman, J. (2014, June 12). Superconducting Cuprates. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from Hoffman Lab website: http://hoffman.physics.harvard.edu/materials/ CuprateIntro.php Ibbotson, M. (n.d.). Structure: Perovskite (CaTiO3). Retrieved July 28, 2014, from ChemWiki: The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook website: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Wikitexts/UC_Davis/UCD_Chem_124A%3A_Kauzlarich/ ChemWiki_Module_Topics/Structure%3A_Perovskite_%28CaTiO3%29 Atfield, J. P. (n.d.). Chemistry and High Temperature Superconductivity. ESPRC. Adnerson, L. G. (2001, May). Structural Properties of Superconducting Bi-2223/Ag Tapes. Risø National Laboratory. Atomic Radius of the elements. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://periodictable.com/Properties/A/AtomicRadius.v.html