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Public Speaking. Chapter 3: Better Listening. Man’s inability to communicate is the result of his failure to listen effectively, skillfully, and with understanding to another person. Carl Rogers, Eminent Psychologist. Objectives. Upon completing this session, you will be able to:

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Public Speaking


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    1. Public Speaking Chapter 3: Better Listening Man’s inability to communicate is the result of his failure to listen effectively, skillfully, and with understanding to another person. Carl Rogers, Eminent Psychologist

    2. Objectives • Upon completing this session, you will be able to: • Describe the nature and importance of effective listening • Overcome barriers to effective listening • Distinguish between internal and external sources of interference • Develop critical thinking and listening skills • Evaluate speeches for substance, structure & presentation skills • Execute your ethical responsibilities as a listener

    3. Better Listening • Nature & importance of effective listening • Improves your ethos or, if lacking, hurt it. • A dynamic activity, not a passive one, that: • Seeks out the meaning intended in messages • Considers motivations (apparent and not) • Evaluates soundness of reasoning and supporting materials • Calculates values and risks of recommendations • Integrates it all into the world of the listener

    4. Better Listening • Nature & importance of effective listening • Being “awake” as the Native American's say • Alert to the “sacredness” of one’s surroundings • Vital to successful communication • Note: Transmitter/Receiver model • Note: Active Listening functions • The talking stick

    5. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening • Scaling invisible listening walls • The Chinese verb to listen has 4 key elements: • Undivided attention • Ears, Eyes, and Heart • Listening is more than hearing.

    6. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase

    7. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Focus on the message (pay attention) • Understand speaker’s verbal and nonverbal language • Interpret what you hear (and see) in light of your knowledge and experience • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase

    8. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • In Discriminative Phase you: • Comprehensive Phase • Apply intellect to grasp the parts and the whole • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase

    9. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • We suspend judgment • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase

    10. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • We seek to value the form • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase

    11. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • We analyze and evaluate content • Constructive Phase

    12. Better Listening • The Ladder of Listening – 6 Phases • Discriminative Phase • Comprehensive Phase • Empathetic Phase (the heart) • Appreciate Phase • Critical Phase • Constructive Phase • We seek value in the content to apply to our lives • Constructive listeners add to the message • Ask questions to extend the meaning Dialogue is an event where meaning emerges through all the participants. (Stewart and Logan)

    13. Better Listening • Benefits of Effective Listening • Benefits to the Listener • Emotionally and intellectually rewarding • Earn better grades and achieve • In work move up the ladder (See Monster Article) • Discover things in which you are or may be interested • Speaking and listening abilities are the two most important factors in helping graduates find jobs • Benefits to Speaker • Listeners provide great feedback and energy • Shows respect for them as people even if disagreed with

    14. Better Listening • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening • External sources of interference • Internal sources of interference

    15. Better Listening • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening • External sources of interference • Noisy uncomfortable environment • Intermittent or continuous? • Message problem • Jargon, bad form and organization • Speaker problem: Talks too slow, too fast, too low, has distracting habits • Internal sources of interference

    16. Better Listening • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening • External sources of interference • Internal sources of interference • Attitudes/cultural differences (pos/neg of speaker/topic) • Filtering, assimilation, contrast effect • Reaction to words (Trigger words e.g. girls, freedom) • Personal concerns (Tired, hungry, worried?) • Bad listening habits • Entertainment syndrome • Fear of failure/not being able to answer question • Listening only for facts vs. also what you see & manner delivered • 2 positives can never make a negative. Yeah, right.

    17. Better Listening • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Listening • External sources of interference • Internal sources of interference • Listener apprehension (RA, Receiver Apprehension) • Fear not able to process or adjust to the message • Control negative message you are giving self • Solutions • Picture self giving a response that helps both speakers and other listeners • Use relaxation techniques • Analyze barriers, negative thoughts

    18. Better Listening • Developing Critical Thinking and Listening Skills • It is an integrated process that involves: • Questioning what you hear • Accepting nothing at face value • Developing your own position on issues by examining competing ideas • Being receptive to new thoughts and perspectives • Evaluating evidence and reasoning • Discussing with others the meaning of events • Listen to one of the speeches I assign

    19. Better Listening • Critical Thinking Questions To Ask • Does the speaker: • Support claims with facts and figures? • Use relevant representative, reliable and recent supporting materials? • Cite credible sources? • Distinguish among facts, inferences & opinions? • (The echo chamber effect in journalism-Katrina Letter) • Use concrete/understandable language, or purposely vague language?

    20. Better Listening • Critical Thinking Questions To Ask (cont.) • Does the speaker: • Ask you to ignore reason? (Demagoguery) • Rely too much on facts and figures? • Use plausible reasoning? • Promise too much? • Have a message that fits with what I already know? • What other perspectives might there be on this subject (cultural, demographic, etc.)?

    21. Better Listening • Evaluation Speeches • You contribute to the effectiveness of a speaker and the speech by: • Effective listening (nods, gestures, attention) • The opportunity to give feedback after the speech • Giving a Critique Versus Being a Critic • Giving a Critique offers constructive evaluation • Being a critic focuses on what someone did wrong

    22. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Adaptation • Purpose • Freshness • Ethics

    23. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Did the speaker care deeply about the subject? • Did the speaker care about you as a listener? • Adaptation • Purpose • Freshness • Ethics

    24. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Adaptation • Did it meet the assigned general purpose? • Informative, persuasive, ceremonial • Was it adapted to fit the listeners (audience)? • Did it involve the audience (gain identification?) • Purpose • Freshness • Ethics

    25. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Adaptation • Purpose • Was the specific purpose clear. • Did it serve to enhance knowledge or move to action? • Freshness • Ethics

    26. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Adaptation • Purpose • Freshness • Did it bring something new? • Is the Point of View unique, innovative? • Ethics

    27. Better Listening • Overall Speech Evaluation Guidelines • How did the following apply to the speech? • Commitment • Adaptation • Purpose • Freshness • Ethics • Did the speech show a respect for the audience? • Did the speech deliver responsible knowledge? • Did the speech show a concern for the consequences of exposure to the message? (The power of words?)

    28. Better Listening • Evaluating Substance • Speech of substance = • Worthwhile message supported by factual data and ideas • Important especially if information runs counter to what is generally believed. • Good speakers and speeches: • Combine several different types of supporting materials • Use examples, metaphors, and analogies • Have a carefully planned structure that is evident in: • Main points being covered in understandable way • Internal and final summaries used for clarification

    29. Better Listening • Evaluating Presentation Skills • Presentation skills = • Words used and the way they are delivered • Simple and direct, easy-to-understand sentences • Concrete (denotative) words versus abstract or connotative words • My pet vs. my 8-week old black Labrador puppy • Extemporaneous presentation • Carefully prepared and presented but not memorized or read from script • Audible voice with varying tones and volumes • Use of gestures and variation in pace Ethical note:Listeners as well as speakers bear ethical responsibilities. Good listeners help develop good speakers. (Osborn/Osborn, 2004)

    30. Summary • Having completed this session, you are be able to: • Describe the nature and importance of effective listening • Overcome barriers to effective listening • Distinguish between internal and external sources of interference • Develop critical thinking and listening skills • Evaluate speeches for substance, structure & presentation skills • Execute your ethical responsibilities as a listener