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Observing and Analyzing Performance (1). The Nature of Skills Movement patterns - a general series of movements having common elements. Ex: running, jumping, walking, throwing, striking, pushing

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observing and analyzing performance 1
Observing and Analyzing Performance (1)
  • The Nature of Skills
    • Movement patterns - a general series of movements having common elements. Ex: running, jumping, walking, throwing, striking, pushing
    • Skill - adaptation of general movement pattern to constraints of a particular task. Ex: high jump, baseball hitting, softball pitching
    • Technique - a particular type of the same skill. Ex: power hitter, contact hitter
    • Style - individual adaptations of a technique. Ex: short backswing, no stride
    • Constraints - limitations associated with the event. Ex: rules, equipment, environment, limitations of performer.
observing performance 2
Observing Performance (2)
  • Classification of Skills According to type of environment:
    • Open - unpredictable environment. Ex. baseball hitting, jump shot
    • Closed - predictable environment. Ex: free throw, golf shot, high jump
  • Classification according to how it is done
    • Discrete - definite beginning and ending. Ex: jump shot, shot put, high jump
      • Repeated discrete - assembly line, tennis forehand. (Subject to repetitive motion disorders)
    • Continuous - no definite beginning and ending. Ex: running, walking, work tasks
oberving performance 3
Oberving performance (3)
  • Observing Skill Performances
    • Discrete skills - divide into phases such as (1) preparation, (2) execution, (3) follow-through/recovery
    • Continuous/cyclic - select one cycle and divide it into phases. Ex: support, swing phases in walking
  • The analysis (holistic model)
    • Identify overall performance objective (OPO) –(Table next slide)
      • When two or more objectives are identified, priority must be set (e.g., speed vs accuracy
    • Divide skill into discrete parts. Ex. Stance, stride, swing, follow-through
    • Identify the mechanical purpose (MP) of each discrete part
    • List the biomechanical factors and principles. Ex:: momentum conservation
    • List the critical features of each part - movements that must be performed for successful execution of the skill (keys to focus on, e.g., knee extended at impact)
  • Example – article on baseball hitting
analysis models the why
Analysis Models – the Why?
  • Holistic – same as Kreighbaum, Adrian p. 18-19
    • Read literature and use prior experience to figure out what to focus on (ex: handout on baseball hitting)
  • Factors-results – Adrian p. 17-18
    • Analytical, heirarchial, deterministic
    • Only useful for goal-oriented skills
    • Example – article by Hay
analysis methods
Analysis Methods
  • Qualitative vs quantitative
    • Types and precision of data needed, not the tool available, dictates selection of tool
  • Naked-eye observational procedures
    • Observational plan necessary to be consistent and reliable
      • View multiple times
      • View from multiple perspectives
      • Focus on parts, then whole, then parts
      • Form a visual-mental image of the performance
      • Use a checklist – borrow or construct your own
constructing analysis checklists
Constructing Analysis Checklists
  • Procedures
    • Study other checklists. Refer to specific sports/skills chapters in textbooks
    • Read literature to determine what factors are important
    • List the determinants of skilled and unskilled actions
    • Arrange checklist in a scale (dichotomous, continuum)
  • Common factors usually included in checklists
    • Location of COM relative to base of support
    • Width of base of support
    • Range and path of movement of various body segments
    • Sequencing of segment movements
    • Projection angleof objects released or struck & total body COM
    • Overall perception of movement’s effectiveness, smoothness, etc.
videographic and cinematographic analyses
Videographic and Cinematographic Analyses
  • Qualitative procedures
    • Contourograms
    • Point plots
    • Stick figures
  • Quantitative analysis -the process (APAS handout)
    • Videotaping
    • Frame grabbing – converting images to digital form
    • Digitizing – locating segment endpoints in space and time
    • Calculations done by computer
      • Applying the multiplier or converting coordinates to life size
      • Smoothing coordinates
      • Calculating parameters for each segment and body COM
        • Linear displacement, velocity, acceleration and inverse dynamics
        • Angular displacement, velocity, acceleration and inverse dynamics
      • Displaying output (Digital as well as graphic)
other analysis procedures
Other Analysis Procedures
  • Optoelectric imaging
    • Active or passive markers
  • Dynamographic analysis
    • F orce platforms, load beams, strain gauges
  • Accelerometric analysis
    • Vibrations, impacts, rapidly changing motions
  • Electrogoniometric analysis
    • Joint and segment angles
  • Electromyography
    • When and to what degree is a muscle active?
    • Fatigue estimate

Peak 41 ms PC

Begin Swing

233ms PC

Horiz Pk 38 ms PC


Beg Sw - 233 ms PC

O0 is horiz & back - 21 ms PC


Approximate position when peak bending and

Peak torque occurs ~ 40 ms PC