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Venetian Cat Studio ( Julia Passamonti-Colamartino) presents:. Italian Maiolica: History and Techniques. Maiolica vs. Majolica. What is Maiolica?. Bernard Palissy French, Paris, about 1550 Lead-glazed earthenware 18 7/8 x 14 1/2 in. Armorial Plate

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what is maiolica
Maiolica vs. MajolicaWhat is Maiolica?

Bernard Palissy

French, Paris, about 1550

Lead-glazed earthenware

18 7/8 x 14 1/2 in.

Armorial Plate

Maestro Giorgio Andreoli1524

origins
Origins
  • Maiolica NOT invented by the Italians
  • First examples found in Baghdad, dated to the 9th century (typically blue and white)
lusterware introduced by the end of 11 th century
Lusterware introduced by the end of 11th cEntury
  • The range of color available with luster is from ruby red, to shades of brown, to chartreuse, and lemon.
  • Luster was used on plates, bowls, ewers, and tile, and is a decorative technique that is purely of Middle Eastern origin, and not Chinese.
  • Kashan lusterware is superior in quality to all others and often features delicately drawn and crowded scenes such as this one, with humans depicted as having round faces and long eyes.
  • Textiles are rendered in dense pattern, and every square inch of surface area is decorated.

Fritware Plate from Kashan,

Luster, 1210

ART 198-History of WorldCeramics

http://www.glendale.edu/~rkibler/kashanplate.htm

other examples of early islamic pottery
Other examples of early islamic pottery

Northeastern IRAN or Transoxiana, 10th century

Earthenware with white slip covering and decoration in pigments under a transparent glaze

3 1/8 x 8 7/8 in. (8.1 x 22.5 cm)

IRAQ, 9th century

Earthenware, overglaze polychrome luster painted

2 3/4 x 91/2 in. (6.9 x 24 cm)

maiolica is introduced to italy
Maiolica is Introduced to Italy
  • Tuscany had good trade relations with Moorish Spain in the 13th century.
  • Large quantities of lusterware were then imported from Spain via the island of Majorca, hence the term “maiolica”.
  • Italians start to work with tin-glazed ware, but do not figure out the technique of lusterware until the 16th century.
  • As Italians acquired knowledge and learned the secrets of their art, Maiolica evolved into 3 distinct styles
trade routes
TRADE ROUTES

http://www.artistica.com

major maiolica centers
Major Maiolica Centers

From “Marvels of Maiolica” by Jaqueline Marie Musacchio

maiolica styles
Maiolica Styles

Archaic

  • Began around the 14th century
  • Timid designs, organic motifs; animals, plants, or simple patterns
  • Colors limited to brown, green, and sometimes yellow
  • Forms were mostly utilitarian
severe
Severe
  • Began around the 15th century
  • Complicated motifs, vibrant outlines and strength.
  • Drawing from Moresque designs.
  • Identified by highly stylized foliage patterns, scrolled leaf patterns animals, busts and scrolling ribbons.
  • Concentric bands of ornament and ‘flat’ drawings were also common to this period
  • Colors included cobalt blues and oranges from iron oxide
beautiful the peak of the three styles
Beautiful:The Peak of the three styles
  • Late 15th and 16th Centuries
  • Moorish and Gothic modes gave way to a definite pictorial style
  • Themes were illustrated reflecting the new Renaissance interests of the patrons, thus:
  • Italian Maiolica was evolving from utilitarian products to articles of luxury and high art.
  • Wider range of colors used as well as lusters.

16th century

Giulia Farnese “Giulia Bella”

beautiful continues
Beautiful (continues):

A striking example of lusterware

  • Masks, grotesques, arms trophies, dolphin headed scrolls, flowers, baskets of fruit, winged cherubs, and banners with inscriptions, legendary labours of ancient heroes, biblical references with classicised interiors, trophies and coats of arms, music, portrait medallions, human figures and winged monsters were all motifs of the period.

Mastro Giorgio Andreoli di Gubbio, 1524

beautiful continues1
Beautiful (continues):
  • Lustre (metallic color created by combining silver and copper oxides) was a difficult technique and only done in a few Italian workshops. This technique was common in Hispano-Moresque ware. The term "maiolica" was originally used in Italy only to describe lusterware. In the 16th century the term became the word for all tin-glazed earthenware.

Mastro Giorgio Andreoli di Gubbio, 1528

beautiful continues2
Beautiful (continues):
  • While these three distinct phases in the development of Maiolican styles can be used to identify the period in which a piece was made it is also possible to identify, roughly, where the piece was produced through the identification of regional styles. In fact with the works of the ‘Beautiful’ period, the styles were influenced by regional schools of painters. The widespread distribution of engravings and prints also contributed to sources of inspiration for painters. This was the way that the works of great masters found their way onto Maiolica wares.

Hercules Overcoming Antaeus, 1520

someregional styles
SomeRegional Styles

DERUTA

Situated in the province of Umbria, this is Italy's largest pottery center and home to more than 250 artisans. Deruta is renown for its Bella Donna plates, a favorite commission of the Italian nobility.

faenza
Faenza

A city-state which houses one of the world's most comprehensive ceramic museums. This was the family seat of the powerful Della Rovere Family.

Brusaporci family coat of arms; organic motifs, 16th c.

Ovoid Vase, 16th c

montelupo fiorentino
Montelupo Fiorentino

Montelupo is located East of Firenze on the banks of the

Arno. The work has a light, airy feel and is highly detailed.

Flask with 4 lugs

Medici Lorena family coat of arms between "raffaellesche"

and medallions 16th c

Pitcher, 1480-1495

orvieto
Orvieto

Known for three motifs:

1)Arcaico, a motif based on medieval primitive pottery,

2)Etrusco, copies of Etruscan artifacts left by the Etruscans from this region and

3)Dame plates decorated with court figures. The Orvieto palette was limited to Manganese (a deep purple brown made from Magnesium) and Verde Ramina made from copper (a green oxide found on the church bells) .

Kantharos, 7th-6thc BC

2nd half of 13thc

One-handled Bowl, 14thc.

castelli
Castelli

Little known outside of Italy, this town, located in the Abruzzi region has had a long history of production, including:

1)Floor tiles in churches

2) the well known albarello pharmacy jars produced by the House of Orsini Colonna, and

3)“I Turchini"; blue maiolica painted with white and gold luster.

Tile, 16th c, San Donato Tile, 16thc. San Donato inscribed“DONATA DE”

castelli continues2
Castelli Continues

“I Turchini” Castelli, 17th c

techniques
Techniques
  • The difference between terra cotta and stoneware
  • Firings: 1st, second and 3rd
  • Decorating: Iznik (Turkish) vs Italian
stoneware vs terracotta
Fired at approximately 2300-2350 F, 1260-1285 C

Clay vitrifies at this temperature, rendering it impervious to freezing and thawing since it is not porous.

Difficult to produce bright oranges and yellows; red possible using reduction

Fired at approximately 1840-1920 F, 1000-1050 C (in Italy, firings are a bit cooler; 900-950C).

Clay porous, good in certain formulations for making cookpots, as pores retain water and moisture for food.

Low firing temperature allow for bright, clear, vivid colors.

Stoneware vs. Terracotta
first firing 1922 f 1050c
First Firing: 1922 F, 1050C
  • Greenware=Unfired
  • Bisque =Fired once
isnik turkish vs italian technique second firing 1840f 1005c
White , refined clay (called engobe) is applied to greenware.

Colored engobes, also called “underglazes” are applied over the white engobe to create a design.

The vessel is bisque-fired.

Clear glaze (glaze =vitrous particles suspended in water that turn to glass when fired) is applied over the entire piece.

The vessel is fired a second time at a lower temperature.

Vessel is Bisque-fired

A solid colored glaze is applied (white, off-white, blue, or green)

Colored oxides, sometimes mixed with frit, are applied over the ground

Clear glaze is applied over the oxides where needed

Piece is fired a second time

If luster is desired, it is appled after the second firing, and the piece is fired a third time at appx. 1160F, 630 c.

Isnik(Turkish) vs. Italian Technique;Second Firing:1840F, 1005C.
tools and process italian maiolica technique
Tools and Process:Italian Maiolica Technique
  • Brushes are ready. These brushes come from Italy and are made of the hair from the inside of a cow’s ear. They are specifically made for decorating maiolica, as are the powdered pigments.
  • Colors are prepared by adding water to pigments.
step 1
Step 1
  • The bisqued piece is glazed with a solid ground color.
step 2
Step 2
  • The design is drawn in pencil.
  • A banding wheel is used to make even lines or “bands” going around the piece.
step 3
Step 3
  • In this case, the pencil lines are outlined in black oxide.

Sometimes this is done using dark blue, depending on the design.

step 4 colored oxides are applied
Step 4: Colored oxides are applied
  • Sometimes, clear is applied over the colored oxides, but not always. Care must be taken not to smudge the design underneath.
  • Mixing frit (called cristallina in Italian) into the oxides can eliminate the need for a clear coat.

When fired, the colors change

a castelli style solar plate time to decorate 15 hours
A Castelli-Style Solar PlateTime to decorate: 15 hours

The plate is divided into sections with a pencil, ruler and protractor before applying color.

the process continues
The Process continues

The yellow rinceau design on the border is very typically Castelli.

almost finished
Almost finished…

To get the deep intense blue, clear coat had to be applied over the entire plate. Care must be taken not to smear the design.

byzantine
Byzantine

Original 1180-1220 AD

more byzantine
More Byzantine

Original 1180-1220 AD

amphorae
Amphorae

Dressel 1C

2nd half to end of 1st c BC

Pompeii VI

1st c BC

the end
The End

For more, please go to:

http://venetiancat.com

Thank you for watching!