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Word Recognition: Phonics and Comprehension Presented by Dr. Elaine Roberts. Components of a Balanced Literacy Diet. Motivation for literacy Concepts of print Word/World knowledge Language development Listening/thinking skills Sight words Phonemic awareness and letter-sound connections

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Word recognition phonics and comprehension presented by dr elaine roberts

Word Recognition: Phonics and ComprehensionPresented byDr. Elaine Roberts

Components of a balanced literacy diet
Components of a Balanced Literacy Diet

  • Motivation for literacy

  • Concepts of print

  • Word/World knowledge

  • Language development

  • Listening/thinking skills

  • Sight words

  • Phonemic awareness and letter-sound connections

  • Letter formation

  • Spelling

  • Schema development

  • Real reading

    • Fluency

    • Text structures

    • Comprehension strategies

      And REAL WRTING experiences


  • Word recognition is the foundation of Reading

  • Comprehension is the goal of Reading

Phonemic awareness assessment roberts e 1997
Phonemic Awareness Assessment (Roberts, E., 1997)

  • Directions:

    • Students say the phonemes (sounds) in the target words for the number of disks presented. If they are unable to say the sounds, the administrator of the test can show them a picture of the target word as a visual cue (If a visual cue is used, indicate in test margin with a “v”). Record their responses.

Phoneme segmentation
Phoneme Segmentation

  • Ask:

    • “What are the phonemes in (target word)? Show the number of sounds in the target words by moving the appropriate number of disks.

      • For example: “What are the sounds in the word run?”

      • Answer: r — u — n

      • Your turn-go, grab, drum

Word recognition phases ehri
Word Recognition Phases (Ehri)

  • 1. Pre alphabetic phase-logographic phase

    • Depends on visual cues and environmental print

    • Studies by Gough & Griffith and Dewitz & Stammer

  • 2. Partial alphabetic phase

    • Some phonemic awareness and letter sound knowledge/invented spellings

  • 3. Alphabetic phase

    • Phonemic awareness and letter sound knowledge

  • Final phase
    Final Phase

    • 4. Consolidated Phase

      • Orthographic knowledge

      • Understands spelling patterns, morphological knowledge

      • Can learn to use analogies — aware of subunits in words-onsets and rimes

      • Onsets — initial consonants in words

      • Rimes — the vowel and what comes after it in a word

        • Ex. In the word cat, ‘c’ is the onset and ‘at’ is the rime.

      • Use conventional spellings of words

      • Has developed a large sight vocabulary

    Robert s spelling error guide
    Robert’s Spelling Error Guide

    • Ehri Word Bear et al.

    • Recognition StageSpelling StageExample Pre-alphabetic Early Letter Name bed = b (visual cues)

    • Partial Alphabetic Letter Name bed = bad

    • (phonetic cues) drive = grive

    • Full alphabetic Within Word Pattern ship = (distinct spellings) sip, ship

    Roberts spelling error guide cont adapted from bear invernizzi templeton johnston 1996 ehri 1992
    Roberts’ Spelling Error Guide, cont. (Adapted from Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 1996; Ehri, 1992)

    • Ehri Word Bear et al.

    • Recognition Stage Spelling StageExample

      Consolidated Syllable Juncture popping =popping

    • (chunks of letters) plesure =

    • plesour, pleasure

    Common phonics patterns in english syllables
    Common Phonics Patterns in English Syllables

    • Syllables that end in a consonant: CVC (sat, splat, napkin); the vowel is usually short.

    • Syllable that ends with a vowel: CV (me, spider), V (a, halo, baby); the vowel is often long.

    • Final e: CVCe (take, home, cupcake); the vowel is often long while the final e is silent.

    • Vowel digraph (ai, ee, ea, oa, etc.) as in team, green, lean, peanut; the 1st vowel is often long and the 2nd one is silent, but this does not apply to many vowel teams.

      Consonant digraph (sh, ph) as in shut, paragraph

      5. R controlled vowel (ar, ur, ir, or, er) as in far, fur, for; the vowel is neither long or short. Plus-ir, ar, ur often sound like er in one syllable words as in the word car, fur.

      6. Consonant plus le, as in little, purple, treble = pur/ple

    • Diphthongs (oi, oy) as in boil, toy; the vowels make a unique sound

    • Schwa=vowel makes “uh” sound=awake

    • Soft and hard c and g-activity on website


    1 ways to segment words 2 how to add ing as a suffix from graves juel graves dewitz 2011 p 190
    1. Ways to Segment Words 2. How to Add ing as a suffix (from Graves, Juel,Graves, deWitz, 2011, p.190)

    Dividing words into syllables
    Dividing Words Into Syllables

    • Between 2 medial consonants: ig/nore, hap/py

    • After medial consonant between 2 vowels: ov/en

    • Words ending in le=consonant + le: re/li/a/ble, bab/ble

    • Prefixes and suffixes: un/done, trans/for/ma/tion, hap/pi/ness

    • Applications with diagraphs: both/er

      Discuss then check http://www.dictionary.com

    The analogy strategy
    The Analogy Strategy

    Examples of chunking unfamiliar words using the analogy strategy: Spelling patterns are underlined. Vowels are long and short:

    Vowels=A,E, I, O, U and sometimes y and w!

    • C at Re/spon/si/ble

      Steps of the analogy strategy:

  • Teach 1-5 key words each week and study onset-rime (rime is also called spelling patterns) of key words

  • Create word families from the key words

  • Use the key words in language experience stories

  • Use the key words in a variety of activities during the week (word analysis, related games and connect to reading and writing for comprehension)

  • Place the key word on a Word Wall as a reference for decoding unfamiliar words with the same spelling patterns

  • Word analysis your turn how many sounds do you hear how many letters are in the word
    Word Analysis…Your Turn: How Many Sounds Do You Hear? How Many Letters are in the Word?

    • C A R V I N E* S EE

    • k au r 3 v i n 3 s e 2

    • C A N T E N T R OU N D

    • k a n 3 t e n t 4 r ou n d 4

    • Ask: Tell me about the vowel…what is your rule? What is the phonics generalization/rule? Does it break the rule?

    Talk to yourself chart
    Talk to Yourself Chart

    • 1. The word is ______________ .

    • 2. Stretch the word.

      • I hear __________________ sounds.

    • 3. I see ________ letters because _______ .

    • 4. The spelling pattern is _____________ .

    • 5. This is what I know about the vowel: _______________ .

    • 6. Another word on the word wall with the same vowel sound is _____________ .

    Partner sharing chart
    Partner-sharing Chart

    • Person 1:

      • 1. My word is _________________ .

      • 2. My word wall word is _______________ .

      • 3. The words are alike because ____________ .

      • 4. Do you agree?

    • Person 2:

      • Give one of these answers:

      • Yes/No, because _____________.

      • Switch roles.

    Day 1 using the analogy strategy for word recognition
    Day 1: Using the Analogy Strategy for Word Recognition

    • Introduce 1-5 key words to be used during the week (Ex. Cat, grab, her, red, take) and learn the spelling patterns: at, ab, er, ed, ake.

    • Use the 1-5 key words in word families with the same spelling patterns:

      • cat, hat, sat grab, cab, drab her, better

      • red, sled, bed take, cake, rake

    • Use the 1-5 key words and some of the words in their word families in a Language Experience Story that is fun to write.

    Day 2
    Day 2:

    • Analyze the key words

      • t a k e

      • t a k (Tell me about the vowel-is it long, short, or makes a unique sound. Why?)

  • Review the 1-5 key words to be learned during the week (cat, grab, her, red, take).

  • Use the key words in sentences and challenge sentences (model), for example:

    • Please take the cake out of the oven.

    • We went skating after the party.

    • Please __________ the cat outside.

  • Apply in a game
    Apply in a Game

    • Play What’s in My Head?

      • My word is on the board.

      • My word begins like “table”.

      • My word rhymes with “lake”.

      • Please __________ the cat outside.

    Vowel word wall
    Vowel Word Wall

    • Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy

      *cat bed ride boatup yes


      re/ spon/ si/ble

      *spelling patterns are also called rimes (the vowel and letters after it in a syllable). The spelling patterns are underlined.

      Struggling readers need to focus on phonics and vocabulary and connect to reading and writing

      Great resource: Gaskins et al article about word recognition in Journal, The Reading Teacher