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War Expands in Vietnam. The Vietnam War Years (1954-1975) Chapter 30, Section 2. Essential Question:. Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?. Lyndon B. Johnson.

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war expands in vietnam

War Expands in Vietnam

The Vietnam War Years

(1954-1975)

Chapter 30, Section 2

essential question
Essential Question:
  • Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?
lyndon b johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
  • When LBJ Took Over As President (1963), South Vietnam was Very Close to Becoming Communist
  • LBJ’s Military Advisors Wanted to Bomb North Vietnam
  • Wanted to Stop Ho Chi Minh from Supporting the Viet Cong in S. Vietnam
  • Why Can’t a President Just Bomb a Country? Who’s Approval Does the President Need? Why?
the gulf of tonkin
The Gulf of Tonkin
  • Story of the U.S.S. Maddox
  • Fired Upon in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2nd, 1964
  • Fired Upon Again on August 4th, 1964
  • No One Can Confirm the 2nd Attack
  • LBJ Asked Congress to Declare War! Hmm……
the gulf of tonkin resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • After the 2nd Attack On the U.S.S. Maddox, LBJ Asked Congress for a Declaration of War!
  • BTW, Firing on a U.S. Ship is an Act of War
  • Congress Did NOT Declare War
  • Congress Gave LBJ the Power to use “Military Force in Vietnam”
  • The Vietnam “Conflict” Started
escalation in vietnam
Escalation in Vietnam
  • LBJ Immediately Began Bombing North Vietnam
  • Escalation is the Policy of Increasing Military Operations
  • U.S. Troops Increased From 75,000 in 1965 to 536,000 by 1968
  • General Westmoreland Was the Commander of the Armed Forces in Vietnam
vietnam a frustrating war
Vietnam: A Frustrating War
  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:
    • Vietnam Was a Limited War: U.S. Feared Bringing China into the War & Starting WWIII
    • Most U.S. Soldiers Were Young (19) & Inexperienced: Soldiers Only Had to Serve 1 Year (6 Months in the Field Fighting) Then They Could Go Home
    • Not Enough Experienced Officers & Soldiers to Fight in the Vietnam Jungles = Many Deaths
a frustrating war
A Frustrating War…
  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:
    • There Was No Frontline: Viet Cong Were the South Vietnamese/Mixed in with the General Population
    • Guerrilla Warfare: Viet Cong Used Guerrilla Warfare/Knew They Couldn’t Defeat the U.S. Military Head On
    • Always Favors the People Who Know the Land: Ho Chi Minh Trail, Booby Traps, Ambushes & Surprise Attacks
      • American Revolution
      • Iraq & Afghanistan Today
a frustrating war1
A Frustrating War…
  • Problems Fighting in Vietnam:
    • Land and Climate of Vietnam:
      • 100 Degrees and Humid All the Time
      • Terrain is Jungle/ Swamps
      • Jungle/Guerrilla Warfare
    • Viet Cong Were a Dedicated Enemy:
      • “One Man Defending His Homeland is Better Than 10 Men Fighting to Take It Over”
napalm agent orange
Napalm & Agent Orange
  • Both Were Used to Either Burn or Destroy the Jungle to Find the Enemy (Viet Cong) & Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Napalm = Jellied Gasoline
  • Agent Orange = Orange Chemical That Kills Vegetation:
    • Helped Destroy Hideouts & Food Supplies of the Viet Cong
    • Destroyed Innocent Civilians Homes and Food
    • U.S. Soldiers Were Exposed To It (Cancerous)
    • Ruined the Environment
effects of agent orange
Effects of Agent Orange
  • Too Grotesque to Show You!
search destroy missions
Search & Destroy Missions
  • American War Tactic
  • American Soldiers Would Hunt Down Viet Cong by Burning and/or Bombing Villages
  • Innocent South Vietnamese Lost Everything (Homes/ Food/Supplies)
    • Turned Against the U.S.
  • Are We Really “Winning the Hearts & Minds of the People?”
the tet offensive 1968
The Tet Offensive (1968)
  • On January 30th and 31st, 1968, The Communists Launched a Surprise Attack on More Than 100Cities & Towns in South Vietnam
  • Viet Cong Living in South Vietnam Planned the Attack
  • Smuggled Weapons into Each City and Dressed as Regular South Vietnamese Citizens
  • Turning Point of the War
the tet offensive 19681
The Tet Offensive (1968)
  • Despite the Surprise Attack, the Viet Cong & the Communists Lost:
    • Gained No Cities
    • Lost 45,000 Troops
    • U.S. Lost 1,100
  • Physical Loss, Mental Victory:
    • U.S. Realized They Can’t Win
    • Americans Start to Question Why Are We Even in Vietnam?
  • General Westmoreland Asked for 206,000 More American Troops After the Tet Offensive
lbj changes war policy
LBJ Changes War Policy
  • Following the Tet Offensive, LBJ Tells General Westmoreland No More Troops
  • Stops the U.S. Bombing of North Vietnam
  • Announces U.S. Would Seek Peace with North Vietnam (1968)
  • Announces He Will Not Run for Reelection in 1968
my lai massacre
My Lai Massacre
  • On March 16th, 1968, American Soldiers Went Out on a Search and Destroy Mission Looking for Viet Cong
  • Lt. William Calley, Jr. Rounded Up the Village of My Lai (Innocent Civilians) & Massacred Them
  • A U.S. Helicopter Flying Over Ordered the U.S. Troops to Cease Fire (Helicopter Fired Warning Shots)
hypothesize
Hypothesize
  • How do YOU think the American public reacted when they found out what happened at My Lai?
lt william calley jr
Lt.William Calley, Jr.
  • Lt. William Calley, Jr. Ordered the Massacre
  • Think Nuremberg Trials
  • Faced Charges of Crimes Against Humanity
  • Found Guilty:
    • Pardoned in 1976
essential question1
Essential Question:
  • Is it right for one group to force its’ beliefs on to another group, even if its’ for their benefit?
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