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Networking Fundamentals. Introduction and OSI model. Introduction. Classifications. Classifications. LAN Local Area Network WAN Wide Area Network PAN Personal Area Network MAN Metropolitan Area Network. Introduction. Topologies. Topologies. Bus Star Ring Mesh Wireless

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Networking Fundamentals


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networking fundamentals

Networking Fundamentals

Introduction and OSI model

classifications1
Classifications
  • LAN
    • Local Area Network
  • WAN
    • Wide Area Network
  • PAN
    • Personal Area Network
  • MAN
    • Metropolitan Area Network
topologies1
Topologies
  • Bus
  • Star
  • Ring
  • Mesh
  • Wireless
  • Hybrid
network models1
Network Models
  • Client/Server
  • Peer-to-Peer
protocols1
Protocols
  • TCP/IP
  • FIR
  • ATM
  • LLDP
  • NetBIOS & NetBEUI
devices1
Devices
  • Media / Converters
  • NIC
    • Network Interface Card
  • Repeater
  • Hub
  • Gateway
  • Bridge
  • Switch
  • Router
slide18
Hub
  • Physical Layer
  • Box with lots of Ethernet connection sockets
  • Repeats messages to all connected nodes
    • Generates wasted traffic
    • Nodes must filter messages intended for them
  • Cheapest way to connect devices
bridge
Bridge
  • Data Link Layer
  • Single incoming and outgoing ports
  • Keeps MAC address tables for two LAN segments
  • Filters traffic using the MAC address
switch
Switch
  • Connects all nodes to each other like a hub
  • Examines Ethernet messages for destination MAC address
  • Intelligently relays messages toward destination
  • More expensive than hubs
  • Can be combined with hubs
router
Router
  • Network Layer
  • A router connects to two different networks

Ex: LAN to WAN (internet)

  • Routers maintain a so-called routing table to keep track of routes
    • Without routers the internet could not function
    • Uses the IP address to forward packets
gateway
Gateway
  • Application Layer down to network layer
  • Connect and translate data between networks with different protocols or architecture
  • For instance, allowing communication between TCP/IP clients and IPX/SPX or AppleTalk
  • A gateway links two systems that do not use the same:
    • Communication protocols
    • Data formatting structures
    • Languages
    • Architecture
standards groups1
Standards Groups
  • IEEE
  • ISO
  • W3C
  • CERN
  • UL
  • EIA
  • TIA
  • ANSI
standards groups2
Standards Groups
  • IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  • ISO

International Organization for Standardization

  • W3C

World Wide Web Consortium

  • CERN

European Organization for Nuclear Research

  • UL

Underwriters Laboratories

  • EIA

Energy Information Administration

  • TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association

  • ANSI

American National Standards Institute

osi model1
OSI MODEL
  • Application
  • Presentation
  • Session
  • Transport
  • Network
  • Data Link
  • Physical

Mnemonics to Remember

Top Down:

A Perfectly Simple Technology Narrowed Down Physically

All People Seem To Need Data Processing

All Pros Search Top Notch Donut Places

Bottom Up:

Programmers Like Networks That Seldom Postpone Anything*

Programmers Dare Not Throw Salty Pretzels Away

Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away

Please Do Not Tell Sales People Anything

People Don’t Need To See Paula Abdul

People Desperately Need To See Pamela Anderson

Paula Did Networking 'TilShe Passed Away

* Uses L for Link layer rather than D for Data Link