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Chapter 8 Communication. Learning Outcomes. Describe the interpersonal communication process and the role of listening in the process. Describe the five communication skills of effective supervisors. Explain five communication barriers and the gateways through them.

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chapter 8 communication

Chapter 8Communication

Learning Outcomes

Describe the interpersonal communication process and the role of listening in the process.

Describe the five communication skills of effective supervisors.

Explain five communication barriers and the gateways through them.

Distinguish between defensive and nondefensive communication.

Explain the impact of nonverbal communication.

Explain positive, healthy communication.

Identify communication technologies and how they affect the communication process.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome
Learning Outcome

1

Describe the interpersonal communication process and the role of listening in the process.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

do you think you are a good communicator listener

Do you think you are a good communicator? Listener?

What do you think you are better at?

Turn to your neighbor and share.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

terms to know
Terms to Know

Communication – the evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person

Interpersonal Communication – communication between two or more people in an organization

Communicator –the person sending the message

Receiver – the person receiving a message

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

terms to know1
Terms to Know

Perceptual Screen – windows through which we interact; allows the message to transmit smoothly, or they can cause distinction

Message – the thoughts and feelings that the communicator intends to evoke in the receiver

Feedback– occurs when information is fed back to the sender that completes two-way communication

Language – the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a group of people

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

terms to know2
Terms to Know

Data – uninterpreted and unanalyzed elements of a message

Information – data with meaning to the person who interprets or analyzes them

Richness – the ability of a medium to convey meaning to a receiver

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

basic interpersonal communication model
Basic Interpersonal Communication Model

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

information richness data capacity
Information Richness & Data Capacity

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reflective listening
Reflective Listening

the skill of listening carefully to another

person and repeating it back to the speaker

This complex process needs to be divided to be understood

What I heard you say was we will understand the process better if we break it into steps

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reflective listening1
Reflective Listening
  • Helps communicator clarify intended message and correct misunderstandings
  • Emphasizes role of the receiver
  • Especially useful in problem solving.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

emphases of reflective listening
Emphases of Reflective Listening
  • The personal elements of the communication process
  • The feelings communicated in the message
  • Rational and considerate response

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reflective listening2

Paraphrase

Affirm Contact

  • Communicates attentiveness
  • Provides reassurance in expressing thoughts and feelings
  • Reflects back to speaker what has been heard; assures accuracy
  • Builds empathy, openness, acceptance

Reflect “core” feelings

Clarify the Implicit

  • Bring out unspoken (but evident) thoughts and feelings
  • Builds greater awareness
  • Restate important thoughts and feelings
  • Exercise caution; danger of overreaching
REFLECTIVE LISTENING

VERBAL

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reflective listening3

Eye Contact

Silence

  • Useful to open a relationship
  • Improves communication
  • Be aware of cultural differences
  • Use moderate eye contact
  • Use times of no eye contact for privacy and control
  • Speaker:
  • Useful for thinking
  • Determine how to express difficult ideas or feelings
  • Listener:
  • Sort out thoughts and feelings
  • Identify and isolate personal responses
REFLECTIVE LISTENING

NONVERBAL

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide14

Beyond the Book:Listen Up!

  • Ways to improve your reflective listening skills:
  • Stop talking
  • Put the speaker at ease
  • Show the speaker you want to listen
  • Remove distractions
  • Empathize with the speaker
  • Be patient
  • Hold your temper
  • Go easy on criticism
  • Ask questions, paraphrase, and clarify
  • Stop talking! Be sure the speaker has finished before you talk.

Evaluate yourself: Which of these items do you most need to work on? Think of specific times you had a difficult communication with a coworker or peer.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

do you think modern technology has helped or hurt our ability to communicate
Do you think modern technology has helped or hurt our ability to communicate?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

one way vs two way communication
One-way vs. Two-way Communication
  • One-Way Communication – a person sends a message to another and no questions, feedback, or interaction follow
    • Good for giving simple directions
    • Efficient, but often less accurate
  • Two-Way Communication – an exchange of thoughts and/or feelings, through which shared meaning often occurs.
    • Good for problem solving

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome1
Learning Outcome

2

Describe the five communication skills of effective supervisors.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

five keys to effective supervisory communication
Five Keys to EffectiveSupervisory Communication
  • Expressiveness
  • Empathy
  • Sensitivity
  • Persuasion
  • Informative

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome2
Learning Outcome

3

Explain five communication barriers and gateways through them.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

barriers to communication
Barriers to Communication

Factors that distort, disrupt or even

halt successful communication

Physical separation

Status differences

Gender differences

Cultural diversity

Language

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

gateways to communication
Gateways to Communication

Openings that break down communication barriers

Requires awareness

and recognition

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

gateways to communication1
Gateways to Communication
  • [Gender differences gateways]
    • Awareness of gender-specific differences in communication
  • [Cultural diversity gateways]
    • Increased awareness and sensitivity
    • Acquiring a guide for for understanding and interacting with members of other cultures
  • [Language gateways]
    • Speak in the native language of the listener
    • Avoid jargon or technical language

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome3
Learning Outcome

4

Distinguish between defensive and nondefensive communication

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

defensive communication
aggressive, malevolent messages as well as passive, withdrawn messagesDefensive Communication

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

defensive communication1
Defensive Communication

[Leads to]

  • injured feelings
  • communication breakdowns
  • alienation
  • retaliatory behaviors
  • nonproductive efforts
  • problem solving failures

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

nondefensive communication
Nondefensive Communication

communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

nondefensive communication1
Nondefensive Communication
  • [Provides]
    • positive and productive basis for asserting and defending oneself against aggression.
    • restores order, balance, and effectiveness to working relationships

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

two defensiveness patterns
Two Defensiveness Patterns

Subordinate Defensiveness –characterized by passive, submissive behavior

“You are right, I am wrong.”

Dominant Defensiveness –characterized by overtly aggressive and domineering behavior.

“I am right.”

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

defensive tactics
Defensive Tactics

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

nondefensive communication a powerful tool
Nondefensive Communication: A Powerful Tool
  • An alternative to defensive communication.
  • Centered, assertive, controlled, informative, realistic, and honest
  • Speaker exhibits self-control and self-possession.
  • Speaker exhibits self-control and self possession
  • Enhances relationship building
  • Listener feels accepted rather than rejected

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome4
Learning Outcome

5

Explain the impact of nonverbal communication.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication

all elements of communication that do not involve words

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

types of nonverbal communication
Types of Nonverbal Communication
  • Proxemics
  • Kinesics
  • Facial and Eye Behavior
  • Paralanguage

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

proxemics
Proxemics

Territorial Space – bands of space extending outward from the body; territorial space differs from culture to culture

Zone a: intimate space: significant others, spouses, family members.

Zone b: personal distance: friendships

Zone c: social distance: business associates and acquaintances.

Zone d: public distance: strangers

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

proxemics1
Proxemics

Seating dynamics – seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communication

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

kinesics
Kinesics

Different gestures mean different things in different cultures.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

facial and eye behavior
Facial and Eye Behavior

Facial expression and eye behavior are used to communicate an emotional state, reveal behavioral intentions, cue the receiver or give unintended clues.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

paralanguage
Paralanguage

variations in speech send messages

What message is sent by:

  • High-pitched, breathy voice
  • Rapid, loud speech
  • Interruptions
  • Tongue clucking

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome5
Learning Outcome

6

Explain positive, healthy communication.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

communicative disease
Communicative Disease

the absence of heartfelt communication in human relationships leading to loneliness and social isolation

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

positive healthy communication
Positive, Healthy Communication

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome6
Learning Outcome

7

Identify communication technologies and how they affect the communication process.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

information communication technology ict
Information Communication Technology (ICT)
  • Information databases
  • E-mail
  • Voice mail
  • Smartphones
  • Video conferencing

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

characteristics of ict
Characteristics of ICT
  • Instant exchange of information across geographic boundaries and time zones
  • Schedules and office hours become irrelevant
  • Normal considerations of time and distance less important

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

how ict affects behavior
How ICT Affects Behavior

Impersonal in nature

Decrease in interpersonal skills

Eliminates non-verbal cues

Alters social context of exchange

Equalizes participation

Increases potential for overload

Encourage multi-tasking

May make people less patient with face-to-face communication

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide46

1. This chapter defines communication as creating “a shared or common

meaning in another person.” Do you perceive Coach Gaines as

having reached that communication goal? Why or why not?

2. The chapter described an Interpersonal Communication Model.

What are examples from this film sequence of each part of the

model?

3. Assess the effectiveness of this communication event. How do you

expect team members and the assistant coaches to react in the second

half of the game?

Friday Night Lights