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Welcome!You will need:pen/pencilspiraltextbook: Lone Star Objective: Analyze the effects in the oil industry after Spindletop..
Engage: Speed Limits • What is the speed limit on nearby highways (I-20)? • The speed limit on many interstate roads is 65 miles per hour. • During the hurricane that hit Galveston in 1900, winds reached 120 miles per hour. • Imagine how much damage a car traveling at this speed would do if it hit something. • The objects the size of cars and even larger were picked up and carried by the wind.
Explore: Natural Disasters • Think about natural disasters that have occurred in Texas during your lifetimes. • Describe what you remember. • The Galveston hurricane was the worst natural disaster ever recorded in the United States.
Explain: Cornell Notes • Title your notes: Modern Texas Emerges 1900-1929
Sec. 1The 1900 Hurricane in Galveston • Why was Galveston at risk for hurricanes? • What factors contributed to the high number of deaths caused by the storm? • What steps has Galveston taken to prevent similar damage in the future?
Galveston in 1900 The city of Galveston is on Galveston Island. This island is a barrier island that protects the coast from the tides of the Gulf of Mexico. Galveston was a leading port around 1900. It was also a major entry port for immigrants in the late 1800s. Galveston’s Firsts • First electric lighting in Texas • First published newspaper in Texas, The Galveston News • First telephone call made in Texas • First baseball game played in Texas • First medical school in Texas Over the years, Galveston has faced the threat of hurricanes. A hurricane is a tropical storm with sustained winds of at least 74 miles per hour.
Galveston In 1900Galveston island is a barrier island. Galveston was a leading port around 1900. It was also a major entry port for immigrants in the late 1800s.
Galveston’s Firsts First electric lighting in Texas First published newspaper in Texas First telephone call made in Texas First baseball game played in Texas First medical school in Texas
Galveston in 1900 Floods, Winds, and Flying Timbers • The massive storm hit Galveston on September 8, 1900. • The winds reached 120 miles per hour. • By midafternoon, water from the Gulf covered half of the city streets. • People were killed and injured by flying timber, bricks, and slate. • A tidal wave lifted homes from their foundations. • People not only drowned but were killed by flying debris.
Hurricane of 1900Hit Galveston on September 8, 1900. People not only drowned but were killed by flying debris.
Galveston in 1900 Destruction • Between 6,000 and 8,000 people died. • Thousands more were injured. • Telephone and telegraph wires fell, cutting off contact with the mainland. • Nearly 4,000 homes were destroyed. • Goods and supplies in stores were ruined. • More than $30 million worth of property suffered damage. (approx. $700 million)
DestructionBetween 6,000 and 8,000 people died. More than $30 million worth of property suffered damage. (approx. $700 million today)
The Wake of the Flood City leaders made two major decisions to protect Galveston from future storms: To build a seawall to prevent future floods • A seawall six miles long, 16 feet high, 17 feet wide was built. To raise the city itself • Parts of Galveston gained as much as 17 feet in elevation. As part of the rebuilding, Galveston established a new plan for governing the city. Commissioners, appointed by the governor of Texas, were responsible for the various city functions. Many other cities adopted this system.
Protection City leaders made two major decisions to protect Galveston from future storms: 1. A seawall six miles long, 16 feet high, 17 feet wide was built to prevent future floods 2. Parts of Galveston gained as much as 17 feet in elevation.
A hurricane has sustained winds of (A) 40 miles per hour. (B) 98 miles per hour. (C) 32 miles per hour. (D) 74 miles per hour.
What two steps were taken after the Hurricane of 1900 to protect Galveston from future storms? (A) Houses were rebuilt with brick, and better forecasters were hired. (B) A seawall was built, and the entire city was elevated. (C) Houses were fortified, and drainage ditches were built. (D) Better forecasting equipment was purchased, and an emergency evacuation plan was developed.
One of the first cities to experiment with new forms of city government was Galveston, Texas. In 1900, a hurricane had swept a tidal wave before it that devastated the city, killing 6,000. This stereograph view shows workers clearing away the debris of Galveston's downtown, searching for bodies in the wake of the disaster.
Hurricanes • DE Hurricanes and Humans
Sec. 2Spindletop Ushers in the Oil Industry • What were the earliest uses for oil? • Why was the Lucas Gusher so important? • What changes occurred in the oil industry after Spindletop? • Why did lawmakers regulate the oil industry?
Spindletop Ushers in the Oil Industry Early Uses of Oil • Spanish explorers used oil to patch their boats. • Native Americans used tar to waterproof baskets. • Sailors used pitch and tar to seal boats. • Workers used oil to grease machinery, axles, and wheels. • Tanners used oil to keep leather supple. • People used kerosene for lighting during the 1800s.
Early Uses of Oilto patch boats to waterproof baskets to grease machinery, axles, and wheels. to keep leather supple. Used kerosene for lighting during the 1800s.
Spindletop Ushers in the Oil Industry The First Oil Fields • Melrose Petroleum Oil Company set up the first oil well in Texas. • This well, located in Oil Springs, produced about 10 barrels of oil per day. • The Corsicana Oil Field in Navarro County produced large quantities of oil in the 1890s. • By 1900, Corsicana was producing 60,000 barrels of oil per year.
A Gusher Starts a Boom Lucas Gusher • Oil workers struck oil at the Lucas Gusher, located on Spindletop Hill, south of Beaumont, on January 10, 1901. • The Lucas Gusher shot out 100,000 barrels of oil per day. This was more oil than all the other oil wells in the United States combined. • Within 2 years, Spindletop had produced 17,500,000 barrels of oil. • As the number of wells grew, production declined. • Production fell to less than 4 million barrels by 1904. • The oil boom brought wildcatters and roughnecks to Texas. • wildcatters – oil seekers who take great risk by drilling in areas not known to have oil • roughnecks – field hands who work the oil fields
A Gusher Starts a Boom Pattillo Higgins believed that there was oil at Spindletop but never hit oil. He leased land to Anthony Lucas who hit an “oil gusher” at Spindletop. It was called the Lucas Gusher which started the oil boom and created interest in oil drilling in Texas. Pattillo Higgins earned the nickname “the prophet at Spindletop” News of the gusher spread quickly and oil workers and financiers came to see the gusher. As the number of well grew, production fell.
Lucas GusherOil workers struck oil at the Lucas Gusher, located on Spindletop Hill The Lucas Gusher started the oil boom and created interest in oil drilling in Texas. Pattillo Higgins was called “the prophet at Spindletop” As the number of wells grew, production fell.
Population of Beaumont explodes. Land prices in Beaumont rise. Oil companies form. Cities grow around new oil refineries. Auto industry grows. New jobs are created. The Impact of the Spindletop Gusher Spindletop Gusher
More DiscoveriesAcross the State • C.M. “Dad” Joiner opened the world’s largest oilfield in Rusk County. As the “father” of the field, he earned the nickname “Dad.” • Money from the sale and leasing of oil fields funded the University of Texas, Texas A & M, and other colleges. • Today, taxes on oil companies are a prime source of revenue for Texas. • Excess oil caused many problems, such as fires and dirty groundwater.
Industry Regulations C.M. “Dad” Joiner opened the world’s largest oilfield in Rusk County Excess oil caused many problems, such as fires and dirty groundwater.
Which oil field is credited with creating more interest in drilling for oil in Texas? (A) Beaumont (B) Spindletop (C) Lucas (D) Corsicana
What was the name given to field hands who worked the oil fields? (A) Wildcatters (B) Roughnecks (C) Speculators (D) Oilers
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer Handout Oil Well Graphic Organizers
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • Pattillo Higgins – Believed that there was oil at Spindletop but never hit oil. • Anthony Lucas – He hit the “gusher” at Spindletop.
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • Oil in early Texas…. • 1866 – Lyne T. Barret drilled the first oil well in Texas (Nacogdoches) • 1894 – Oil found in Coriscana and Joseph S. Cullinan built a refinery to process crude oil
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • The events of Spindletop… • 1892 Pattillo Higgins believed that there was oil at Spindletop • 1899 Higgins leased land to Anthony Lucas • October 1900 Lucas begins drilling at Spindletop
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • The events of Spindeltop: • January 10, 1901, Lucas hits the largest reserve of oil in the world • The oil well flowed for 9 days producing almost 100,000 barrels per day • 1902 – Oil production quadrupled • Beaumont became a “boomtown”
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • Impact of Spindeltop on Texas then… • Houston became the center of oil business • Demand for products needed for the oil industry increased like lumber • Oil was found in other parts of Texas • Opening over 500 oil companies like Texaco • New breed of people – “wildcatters”
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • Impact of Spindletop on Texas today: • Houston (large port) is still the center of the oil business • Oil business is a profitable industry • Home of Exxon-Mobil • Large number of products made from oil • Expanded the automobile industry and roads improved • Other port cities: Beaumont, Corpus Christi
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • Impact on Beaumont: • Population increased from 9,000 to 50,000 • The cost of goods and services increased • Increase of businesses – hotels, barbershops, restaurants, etc. • Increase in oil businesses – refineries, storage facilities, tools, etc. • Oil operators began drilling around Beaumont
Elaborate: Oil Well Graphic Organizer • How did oil lead to the expansion of the Texas frontier? • Oil led to the expansion of the Texas frontier by drawing more people with jobs and a future. • Oil was found in West Texas which drew settlers, businesses, and transportation systems to cities and towns of that area.
Evaluate: GRA 16, Sections 1-2 • Handout Guided reading Activity 16, Sections 1 & 2