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Interaction Devices. Human Computer Interaction CIS 6930/4930 Section 4188/4186. Interaction Performance. 60s vs. Today Performance Hz -> GHz Memory k -> GB Storage k -> TB Input punch cards -> Keyboards, Pens, tablets, mobile phones, mice, digital cameras, web cams Output

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interaction devices

Interaction Devices

Human Computer Interaction

CIS 6930/4930

Section 4188/4186

interaction performance
Interaction Performance
  • 60s vs. Today
    • Performance
      • Hz -> GHz
    • Memory
      • k -> GB
    • Storage
      • k -> TB
    • Input
      • punch cards ->
      • Keyboards, Pens, tablets, mobile phones, mice, digital cameras, web cams
    • Output
      • 10 character/sec
      • Megapixel displays, color laser, surround sound, force feedback, VR
  • Substantial bandwidth increase!
interaction performance3
Interaction Performance
  • Future?
    • Gestural input
    • Two-handed input
    • 3D I/O
    • Others: voice, wearable, whole body, eye trackers, data gloves, haptics, force feedback
    • Engineering research!
    • Entire companies created around one single technology
  • Current trend:
    • Multimodal (using car navigation via buttons or voice)
    • Helps disabled (esp. those w/ different levels of disability)
keyboard and keypads
Keyboard and Keypads
  • QWERTY keyboards been around for a long time
    • (1870s – Christopher Sholes)
    • Cons: Not easy to learn
    • Pros: Familiarity
    • Stats:
      • Beginners: 1 keystroke per sec
      • Average office worker: 5 keystrokes (50 wpm)
      • Experts: 15 keystrokes per sec (150 wpm)
  • Is it possible to do better? Suggestions?
keyboard and keypads5
Keyboard and Keypads
  • Look at the piano for possible inspiration
  • Court reporter keyboards (one keypress = multiple letters or a word)
    • 300 wpm, requires extensive training and use
  • Keyboard properties that matter
    • Size
      • large - imposing for novices, appears more complex
      • mobile devices
    • Adjustable
      • Reduces RSI, better performance and comfort
    • Mobile phone keyboards, blackberry devices, etc.
keyboard layouts
Keyboard Layouts
  • QWERTY
    • Frequently used pairs far apart
    • Fewer typewriter jams
    • Electronic approaches don’t jam.. why use it?
  • DVOARK (1920s)
    • 150 wpm->200 wpm
    • Reducing errors
    • Takes about one week to switch
    • Stops most from trying
  • ABCDE – style
    • Easier for non-typists
    • Studies show no improvement vs. QWERTY
  • Number pads
    • What’s in the top row?
    • Look at phones (slight faster), then look at calculators, keypads
  • Those for disabled
    • Split keyboards
    • KeyBowl’s orbiTouch (screenshot)
    • Eyetrackers, mice
    • Dasher - 2d motion with word prediction
slide7
Keys
  • Current keyboards have been extensively tested
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Required force
    • Spacing
  • Speed vs. error rates for majority of users
  • Distinctive click gives audio feedback
    • Why membrane keyboards are slow (Atari 400?)
      • Environment hazards might necessitate
      • Usually speed is not a factor
keys guidelines
Keys Guidelines
  • Special keys should be denoted
  • State keys (such as caps, etc.) should have easily noted states
  • Special curves or dots for home keys for touch typists
  • Inverted T Cursor movement keys are important (though cross is easier for novices)
  • Auto-repeat feature
    • Improves performance, but only if repeat is customizable (motor impaired, young, old)
  • Two thinking points:
    • Why are home keys fastest to type?
    • Why are certain keys larger? (Enter, Shift, Space bar)
  • This is called Fitt’s Law
keypads for small devices
Keypads for small devices
  • PDAs, Cellphones, Game consoles
  • Fold out keyboards
  • Virtual keyboard
  • Cloth keyboards (ElekSen)
  • Haptic feedback?
  • Mobile phones
    • Combine static keys with dynamic soft keys
    • Multi-tap a key to get to a character
    • Study: Predictive techniques greatly improve performance
    • Ex. LetterWise = 20 wpm vs 15 wpm multitap
  • Draw keyboard on screen and tap w/ pen
    • Speed: 20 to 30 wpm (Sears ’93)
  • Handwriting recognition (still hard)
    • Subset: Graffiti2 (uses unistrokes)
pointing devices
Pointing Devices
  • Direct manipulation needs some pointing device
  • Factors:
    • Size of device
    • Accuracy
    • Dimensionality
  • Interaction Tasks:
    • Select – menu selection, from a list
    • Position – 1D, 2D, 3D (ex. paint)
    • Orientation – Control orientation or provide direct 3D orientation input
    • Path – Multiple poses are recorded
      • ex. to draw a line
    • Quantify – control widgets that affect variables
    • Text – move text
  • Faster w/ less error than keyboard
  • Two types (Box 9.1)
    • Direct control – device is on the screen surface (touchscreen, stylus)
    • Indirect control – mouse, trackball, joystick, touchpad
direct control pointing
Direct-control pointing
  • First device – lightpen
    • Point to a place on screen and press a button
    • Pros:
      • Easy to understand and use
      • Very fast for some operations (e.g. drawing)
    • Cons:
      • Hand gets tired fast!
      • Hand and pen blocks view of screen
      • Fragile
  • Evolved into the touchscreen
    • Pros: Very robust, no moving parts
    • Cons: Depending on app, accuracy could be an issue
      • 1600x1600 res with acoustic wave
    • Must be careful about software design for selection (land-on strategy).
      • If you don’t show a cursor of where you are selecting, users get confused
    • User confidence is improved with a good lift-off strategy
direct control pointing12
Direct-control pointing
  • Primarily for novice users or large user base
  • Case study: Disney World
  • Need to consider those who are: disabled, illiterate, hard of hearing, errors in usage (two touch points), etc.
indirect control pointing
Indirect-Control Pointing
  • Pros:
    • Reduces hand-fatigue
    • Reduces obscuration problems
  • Cons:
    • Increases cognitive load
    • Spatial ability comes more into play
  • Mouse
    • Pros:
      • Familiarity
      • Wide availability
      • Low cost
      • Easy to use
      • Accurate
    • Cons:
      • Time to grab mouse
      • Desk space
      • Encumbrance (wire), dirt
      • Long motions aren’t easy or obvious (pick up and replace)
    • Consider, weight, size, style, # of buttons, force feedback
indirect control pointing14
Indirect-Control Pointing
  • Trackball
    • Pros:
      • Small physical footprint
      • Good for kiosks
  • Joystick
    • Easy to use, lots of buttons
    • Good for tracking (guide or follow an on screen object)
    • Does it map well to your app?
  • Touchpoint
    • Pressure-sensitive ‘nubbin’ on laptops
    • Keep fingers on the home position
indirect control pointing15
Indirect-Control Pointing
  • Touchpad
    • Laptop mouse device
    • Lack of moving parts, and low profile
    • Accuracy, esp. those w/ motor disabilities
  • Graphics Tablet
    • Screen shot
    • comfort
    • good for cad, artists
    • Limited data entry
comparing pointing devices
Comparing pointing devices
  • Direct pointing
    • Study: Faster but less accurate than indirect (Haller ’84)
  • Lots of studies confirm mouse is best for most tasks for speed and accuracy
  • Trackpoint < Trackballs & Touchpads < Mouse
  • Short distances – cursor keys are better
  • Disabled prefer joysticks and trackballs
    • If force application is a problem, then touch sensitive is preferred
    • Vision impaired have problems with most pointing devices
      • Use multimodal approach or customizable cursors
      • Read Vanderheiden ’04 for a case study
  • Designers should smooth out trajectories
  • Large targets reduce time and frustration
example
Example
  • Five fastest places to click on for a right-handed user?
example18
Example
  • What affects time?
fitts s law
Fitts’s Law
  • Paul Fitts (1954) developed a model of human hand movement
  • Used to predict time to point at an object
  • What are the factors to determine the time to point to an object?
    • D – distance to target
    • W – size of target
  • Just from your own experience, is this function linear?
    • No, since if Target A is D distance and Target B is 2D distance, it doesn’t take twice as long
    • What about target size? Not linear there either
  • MT = a + b log2(D/W + 1)
    • a = time to start/stop in seconds (empirically measured per device)
    • b = inherent speed of the device (empirically measured per device)
    • Ex. a = 300 ms, b = 200 ms/bit, D = 14 cm, W = 2 cm
      • Ans: 300 + 200 log2(14/2 + 1) = 900 ms
    • Really a slope-intercept model
fitts s law20
Fitts’s Law
  • MT = a + b log2(D/W + 1)
    • a = time to start/stop in seconds (empirically measured per device)
    • b = inherent speed of the device (empirically measured per device)
    • Ex. a = 300 ms, b = 200 ms/bit, D = 14 cm, W = 2 cm
      • Ans: 300 + 200 log2(14/2 + 1) = 900 ms
    • Question: If I wanted to half the pointing time (on average), how much do I change the size?
  • Proven to provide good timings for most age groups
  • Newer versions taken into account
    • Direction (we are faster horizontally than vertically)
    • Device weight
    • Target shape
    • Arm position (resting or midair)
    • 2D and 3D (Zhai ’96)
very successfully studied
Very Successfully Studied
  • Applies to
    • Feet, eye gaze, head mounted sights
    • Many types of input devices
    • Physical environments (underwater!)
    • User populations (even retarded and drugged)
    • Drag & Drop and Point & Click
  • Limitations
    • Dimensionality
    • Software accelerated pointer motion
    • Training
    • Trajectory Tasks (Accot-Zhai Steering Law)
    • Decision Making (Hick’s Law)
  • Results (what does it say about)
    • Buttons and widget size?
    • Edges?
    • Popup vs. pull-down menus
    • Pie vs. Linear menus
    • iPhone/web pages (real borders) vs. monitor+mouse (virtual borders)
  • Interesting readings:
    • http://particletree.com/features/visualizing-fittss-law/
    • http://www.asktog.com/columns/022DesignedToGiveFitts.html
    • http://www.yorku.ca/mack/GI92.html
precision pointing movement time
Precision Pointing Movement Time
  • Study: Sears and Shneiderman ’91
    • Broke down task into gross and fine components for small targets
    • PPMT = a + b log2(D/W+1) + c log2(d/W)
      • c – speed for short distance movement
      • d – minor distance
    • Notice how the overall time changes with a smaller target.
  • Other factors
    • Age (Pg. 369)
  • Research: How can we design devices that produce smaller constants for the predictive equation
    • Two handed
    • Zooming
novel devices
Novel Devices
  • Themes:
    • Make device more diverse
      • Users
      • Task
    • Improve match between task and device
    • Improve affordance
    • Refine input
    • Feedback strategies
  • Foot controls
    • Already used in music where hands might be busy
    • Cars
    • Foot mouse was twice as slow as hand mouse
    • Could specify ‘modes’
novel devices24
Novel Devices
  • Eye-tracking
    • Accuracy 1-2 degrees
    • selections are by constant stare for 200-600 ms
    • How do you distinguish w/ a selection and a gaze?
    • Combine w/ manual input
  • Multiple degree of freedom devices
    • Logitech Spaceball and SpaceMouse
    • Ascension Bird
    • Polhemus Liberty and IsoTrack
novel devices25
Novel Devices
  • Boom Chameleon
    • Pros: Natural, good spatial understanding
    • Cons: limited applications, hard to interact (very passive)
  • DataGlove
    • Pinch glove
    • Gesture recognition
    • American Sign Language, musical director
    • Pros: Natural
    • Cons: Size, hygiene, accuracy, durability
novel devices26
Novel Devices
  • Haptic Feedback
    • Why is resistance useful?
    • SensAble Technology’s Phantom
    • Cons: limited applications
    • Sound and vibration are easier and can be a good approximation
      • Rumble pack
  • Two-Handed input
    • Different hands have different precision
    • Non-dominant hand selects fill, the other selects objects
  • Ubiquitous Computing and Tangible User Interface
    • Active Badges allows you to move about the house w/ your profile
    • Which sensors could you use?
    • Elderly, disabled
    • Research: Smart House
    • Myron Kruger – novel user participation in art (Lots of exhibit art at siggraph)
novel devices27
Novel Devices
  • Paper/Whiteboards
    • Video capture of annotations
    • Record notes (special tracked pens Logitech digital pen)
  • Handheld Devices
    • PDA
    • Universal remote
    • Help disabled
      • Read LCD screens
      • Rooms in building
      • Maps
    • Interesting body-context-sensitive.
      • Ex. hold PDA by ear = phone call answer.
novel devices28
Novel Devices
  • Miscellaneous
    • Shapetape – reports 3D shape.
      • Tracks limbs
  • Engineer for specific app (like a gun trigger connected to serial port)
    • Pros: good affordance
    • Cons: Limited general use, time
speech and auditory interfaces
Speech and Auditory Interfaces
  • There’s the dream
  • Then there’s reality
  • Practical apps don’t really require freeform discussions with a computer
    • Goals:
      • Low cognitive load
      • Low error rates
  • Smaller goals:
    • Speech Store and Forward (voice mail)
    • Speech Generation
    • Currently not too bad, low cost, available
speech and auditory interfaces30
Speech and Auditory Interfaces
  • Bandwidth is much lower than visual displays
  • Ephemeral nature of speech (tone, etc.)
  • Difficulty in parsing/searching (Box 9.2)
  • Types
    • Discrete-word recognition
    • Continuous speech
    • Voice information
    • Speech generation
    • Non-speech auditory
  • If you want to do research here, lots of research in the audio, audio psychology, and DSP field you should understand
discrete word recognition
Discrete-Word Recognition
  • Individual words spoken by a specific person
  • Command and control
  • 90-98% for 100-10000 word vocabularies
  • Training
    • Speaker speaks the vocabulary
    • Speaker-independent
  • Still requires
    • Low noise operating environment
    • Microphones
    • Vocabulary choice
    • Clear voice (language disabled are hampered, stressed)
    • Reduce most questions to very distinct answers (yes/no)
discrete word recognition32
Discrete-Word Recognition
  • Helps:
    • Disabled
    • Elderly
    • Cognitive challenged
    • User is visually distracted
    • Mobility or space restrictions
  • Apps:
    • Telephone-based info
  • Study: much slower for cursor movement than mouse or keyboard (Christian ’00)
  • Study: choosing actions (such as drawing actions) improved performance by 21% (Pausch ’91) and word processing (Karl ’93)
    • However acoustic memory requires high cognitive load (> than hand/eye)
  • Toys are successful (dolls, robots). Accuracy isn’t as important
  • Feedback is difficult
continuous speech recognition
Continuous Speech Recognition
  • Dictation
  • Error rates and error repair are still poor
  • Higher cognitive load, could lower overall quality
  • Why is it hard?
    • Recognize boundaries (normal speech blurs them)
    • Context sensitivity
    • “How to wreck a nice beach”
  • Much training
  • Specialized vocabularies (like medical or legal)
  • Apps:
    • Dictate reports, notes, letters
    • Communication skills practice (virtual patient)
    • Automatic retrieval/transcription of audio content (like radio, CC)
    • Security/user ID
voice information systems
Voice Information Systems
  • Use human voice as a source of info
  • Apps:
    • Tourist info
    • Museum audio tours
    • Voice menus (Interactive Voice Response IVR systems)
  • Use speech recognition to also cut through menus
    • If menus are too long, users get frustrated
    • Cheaper than hiring 24 hr/day reps
  • Voice mail systems
    • Interface isn’t the best
  • Get email in your car
    • Also helps with non-tech savvy like the elderly
  • Potentially aides with
    • Learning (engage more senses)
    • Cognitive load (hypothesize each sense has a limited ‘bandwidth’)
      • Think ER, or fighter jets
speech generation
Speech Generation
  • Play back speech (games)
  • Combine text (navigation systems)
  • Careful evaluation!
    • Speech isn’t always great
      • Door is ajar – now just a tone
      • Use flash
      • Supermarket scanners
    • Often times a simple tone is better
    • Why? Cognitive load
      • Thus cockpits and control rooms need speech
      • Competes w/ human-human communication
speech generation36
Speech Generation
  • Ex: Text-to-Speech (TTS)
  • Latest TTS uses multiple syllabi to make generated speech sound better
    • Robotic speech could be desirable to get attention
    • All depends on app
    • Thus don’t assume one way is the best, you should user test
  • Apps: TTS for blind, JAWS
  • Web-based voice apps: VoiceXML and SALT (tagged web pages).
    • Good for disabled, and also for mobile devices
  • Use if
    • Message is short
    • Requires dynamic responses
    • Events in time
  • Good when visual displays aren’t that useful. When?
    • Bad lighting, vibrations (say liftoff)
non speech auditory interface
Non-speech Auditory Interface
  • Audio tones that provide information
  • Major Research Area
    • Sonification – converting information into audio
    • Audiolization
    • Auditory Interfaces
  • Browsers produced a click when you clicked on a link
    • Increases confidence
    • Can do tasks without visual cognitive load
    • Helps figure out when things are wrong
    • Greatly helps visually impaired
non speech auditory interface38
Non-speech Auditory Interface
  • Terms:
    • Auditory icons – familiar sounds (record real world sound and play it in your app)
    • Earcons – new learned sounds (door ajar)
  • Role in video games is huge
    • Emotions, Tension, set mood
  • To create 3D sound
    • Need to do more than stereo
    • Take into account Head-related transfer function (HRTF)
      • Ear and head shape
  • New musical instruments
    • Theremin
  • New ways to arrange music
displays
Displays
  • Primary Source of feedback
  • Properties:
    • Physical Dimension
    • Resolution
    • Color Depth and correctness
    • Brightness, contrast, glare
    • Power
    • Refresh rate
    • Cost
    • Reliability
    • # of users
display technology
Display Technology
  • Monochrome displays (single color)
    • Low cost
    • Greater intensity range (medical)
  • Color
    • Raster Scan CRT
    • LCD – thin, bright
    • Plasma – very bright, thin
    • LED – large public displays
    • Electronic Ink – new product w/ tiny capsules of negative black particles and positive white
    • Braille – refreshable cells with dots that rise up
large displays
Large Displays
  • Wall displays
    • Informational
      • Control rooms, military, flight control rooms, emergency response
      • Provides
        • System overview
        • Increases situational awareness
        • Effective team review
      • Old: Array of CRTs
    • Interactive
      • Require new interaction methods (freehand sketch, PDAs)
      • Local and remote collaboration
      • Art, engineering
large displays42
Large Displays
  • Multiple Desktop Displays
    • Multiple CRTs or Flat panels for large desktops
    • Cheap
    • Familiar
    • Spatial divide up tasks
    • Comparison tasks are easier
    • Too much info?
  • HMD
  • Eventually -> Every surface a pixel
mobile device displays
Mobile device displays
  • Applications
    • Personal
      • Reprogrammable picture frames
        • Digital family portrait (GaTech)
    • Business
      • PDAs, cellphones
    • Medical
      • Monitor patients
    • Research: Modality Translation Services (Trace Center – University of Wisconsin)
      • As you move about it auto converts data, info, etc. for you
mobile device displays44
Mobile device displays
  • Actions on mobile devices
    • Monitor information and alert (calendar)
    • Gather then spread out information (phone)
    • Participate in groups and relate to individual (networked devices)
    • Locate services and identify objects (GPS car system)
    • Capture and then share info (phone)
mobile device displays45
Mobile device displays
  • Guidelines for design
    • Bergman ’00, Weiss, ’02
    • Industry led research and design case studies (Lindholm ’03)
    • Typically short in time usage (except handheld games)
    • Optimize for repetitive tasks (rank functions by frequency)
    • Research: new ways to organize large amounts of info on a small screen
    • Study: Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) presents text at a constant speed (33% improvement Oquist ’03)
    • Searching and web browsing still very poor performance
    • Promising: Hierarchical representation (show full document and allow user to select where to zoom into)
animation image and video
Animation, Image, and Video
  • Content quality has also greatly increased
  • 3D rendering is near life-like
  • Digital Photography is common
  • Scanned documents
  • Video compression
  • Multimedia considerations for the disabled
  • Printers
    • 3D Printers create custom objects from 3D models