comparing combustion energies of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuels by bomb calorimetry n.
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Comparing Combustion Energies of Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels By Bomb Calorimetry
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  1. Comparing Combustion Energies of Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel FuelsBy Bomb Calorimetry Penn State University, Department of Chemistry, CHEM 457, Section 1, Fall 2013 By: Tim Haggerty, ArjunPlakkat, Kelly Helfrich, Kristen Woznick

  2. Motivation

  3. Holmes, Frank. "World Running Low on Its "Energy Drink" - U.S. Global Investors - September 21, 2011." World Running Low on Its "Energy Drink" - U.S. Global Investors - September 21, 2011. US Global Investors, 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

  4. Matt. "Half of Oil Burnable in 2000-2050 to Keep Us within 2 Degrees Warming Has Been Used up as We Hit 400 Ppm." Half of Oil Burnable in 2000-2050 to Keep Us within 2 Degrees Warming Has Been Used up as We Hit 400 Ppm. Crude Oil Peak, 16 May 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

  5. Combustion for Average Diesel Molecule Introduction Combustion for Average Biodiesel Molecule Ciolkosz, Daniel, Joseph Perez, Dennis Buffington, and Glen Cauffman. "Renewable and Alternate Energy Fact Sheet." Penn State College of Agricultural Science, 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. <http:// pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/uc205.pdf>. Krol, Walter J. "Comparative Fuel Characteristics." Biodiesel Fuel. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ct.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/>. Graboski, Michael S., and Robert L. McCormick. "Combustion of Fat and Vegetable Oil Derived Fuels in Diesel Engines." Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 24.2 (1998): 125-64. ScienceDirect. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360128597000348>. Patzek, Tad. "A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Soybean." Texas A&M Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, 13 Apr. 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. <http://gaia.pge.utexas.edu/papers/Biodiesel.pdf>. Biodiesel Labs. "Combustion of a Renewable and Fossil Fuel: Teacher Manual." Loyola University of Chicago, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. Dunn, Bruce. "Liquid Fuels." Liquid Fuels. NASA, n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2013.

  6. ∆U = Q + W First Law of Thermodynamics Parr Bomb Calorimetry ∆Hv =∆U + ∆n(g)RT Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H. Lab Packet for CHEM 457 Experimental Physical Chemistry. Chem 345. "Bomb Calorimetry." Bomb Calorimetry. Hope University, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013.

  7. Parr Bomb Calorimetry Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H. Lab Packet for CHEM 457 Experimental Physical Chemistry. Chem 345. "Bomb Calorimetry." Bomb Calorimetry. Hope University, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013.

  8. Calorimeter Motor For Stirrer Bomb Ignition Box EXPERIMENTAL

  9. Specifications: • 5 Diesel Samples • 5 Biodiesel Samples • 10 cm of Wire • 30 atm Oxygen • 2 L Water Bath EXPERIMENTAL Bomb: Samples Placed In Here Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H. Lab Packet for CHEM 457 Experimental Physical Chemistry.

  10. Results Trial Parameters

  11. Trial parameters- Day 1

  12. Trial parameters- Day 2

  13. Results Bomb Calorimetry Data- Average Temperature Profiles

  14. T60%=24.33 °C t60%=6.62 min.

  15. Instantaneous Tfand Ti determined from T60% and t60% • Regression slopes of pre-/post-ignition lines due to stirrer work and heat transfer to surroundings • Calorimeter heat capacity determined from benzoic acid combustion • First diesel run excluded as per Q-test Data Analysis Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H. Lab Packet for CHEM 457 Experimental Physical Chemistry.

  16. T60%=23.23 °C t60%=6.89 min.

  17. T60%=24.56 °C t60%=6.81 min.

  18. Results Bomb Calorimetry Data- ΔHcomb

  19. Final Results Krol, Walter J. "Comparative Fuel Characteristics." Biodiesel Fuel. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ct.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/>. Graboski, Michael S., and Robert L. McCormick. "Combustion of Fat and Vegetable Oil Derived Fuels in Diesel Engines." Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 24.2 (1998): 125-64. ScienceDirect. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360128597000348>.

  20. Discussion

  21. Measured temperature difference largest source • Same calorimeter used each day • Same volume of water used in each trial • Increasing by 0.01 K -> 4% change in ΔHcomb • Purged bomb with 30 atm O2 to prevent NOx formation Controlling for accurate data Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H. Lab Packet for CHEM 457 Experimental Physical Chemistry.

  22. Biodiesel structure has more C-C bonds (C17) • Diesel structure has no ester group (C12) Why is biodiesel’s value higher? Biodiesel Labs. "Combustion of a Renewable and Fossil Fuel: Teacher Manual." Loyola University of Chicago, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.

  23. Ideal gas behavior assumed • Assumption holds best at 1 atm • SRK or PR EOS better choice to model thermodynamics • Puncturing capsule with fuse wire • Contained liquid sample beforehand • Might be mitigated with larger capsules • Uncertainty change in temperature Sources of error

  24. Conclusion

  25. Liquid biodiesel • ΔHcomb=- 11700 ± 60 kJ/mol • 7% difference from lit. value • ΔHcomb=-36,600±200 kJ/L • ΔHcomb=-43.3±0.2 kJ/g • Liquid diesel • Δhcomb=- 8070 ± 60 kJ/mol • 12% difference from lit. value • ΔHcomb=-39,900 ± 300 kJ/L • ΔHcomb=-47.9 ± 0.4 kJ/g Experimental objective achieved

  26. Questions?