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Canine Search Specialist Training. Unit 5: Scent Theory. Unit Objective. Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to explain the theory of scent as it relates to the canine search for live victims in a collapsed structure. Enabling Objectives.

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Canine Search Specialist Training


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    1. Canine Search Specialist Training Unit 5: Scent Theory

    2. Unit Objective Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to explain the theory of scent as it relates to the canine search for live victims in a collapsed structure

    3. Enabling Objectives • Explain the rationale for understanding scent movement • Describe the factors that may affect scent • Describe how scent is transported away from the victim • Plan the search of a collapsed structure to efficiently work canines into scent

    4. Rationale • Dogs “see” the world through their nose • Scent is 3-dimensional to them • Our job is to put them where they can best detect scent

    5. The Canine Olfactory System

    6. The Nose Knows

    7. Canine Olfactory System Olfactory sensory cell estimates • Human = 5 million • Canine = 220 million

    8. CONTRIBUTORS TO HUMAN SCENT COMPLEX Adipose Bacterial Action MEOH H2SO4 Volatile Fatty Acids K, Cl, Urea, Ca Mg, PO4, HOH Human Scent Eccrine Sebaceous Sebum, Squalene Volatile Fatty Acids Amines Respiratory Tract GI Tract Apocrine Other factors: Genetic, Diet, Environment

    9. Huh?

    10. What is scent to a canine?

    11. The Raft Theory • Dying/dead, bacteria laden skin cells—called rafts • Rafts are shed from • Skin • Respiratory and digestive tracks

    12. Approximately 40,000 per minute! Skin raft loss

    13. “If one gram of butyric acid was made to evaporate evenly in all the rooms of a ten story office building, a man would barely be able to perceive its existence by standing in one of the rooms. However, if the same gram of butyric acid was diluted to fill the air above the entire city of Hamburg, the dog could still perceive it at an altitude of 300 feet.” William Syrotuck Scent and the Scenting Dog, pg. 13

    14. How is scent dispersed? The scent is heaviest at the source and dispersed away from the victim in a cone

    15. WIND Scent Dispersal

    16. Influences on Scent Dispersal

    17. Environmental Influences

    18. Environmental Influences • Temperature • Wind strength and direction • Humidity • Sun

    19. Temperature • Hot • Cold • The temperature of victim versus the temperature of the environment

    20. Wind • Strength • Direction

    21. Humidity • High • Low • Rain

    22. Sun • Clear • Overcast • Night

    23. Day-time Patterns Night-time Flows

    24. Structural Influences

    25. Structural Influences • Building architecture • Elevator shafts • Closed stairwells • Windows • Breached floors/walls

    26. Structural Influences (continued) • Scent flows well in • Broken rubble • Light framing • Brick

    27. Katrina 2005

    28. Scent Flow and Detection

    29. Scent Flow and Detection The disaster search canine is trained to indicate the presence of a live victim by performing a focused bark alert at the point in the rubble where the strongest live human scent is emitted Bark! Bark!

    30. DETECTION versus LOCATION Dogs are SCENT detectors NOT victim locators!

    31. BARK Scent Flow—Channeling scent cone scent cone scent cone • Solid Slabs • Large Chunks

    32. Solid Slabs • Large Chunks BARK BARK

    33. Scent Source Detection • Be able to interpret your dog’s alert • Document • Debrief • Handler to STM • Handler to Handler

    34. Scent Flow—Funneling Bark! Bark!

    35. Scent Flow—Pooling Bark! Bark!

    36. Typical Collapse Patterns • Lean-To • “V” • Pancake • Cantilever

    37. Lean-To

    38. “V”

    39. Pancake

    40. Cantilever

    41. What is this? Cold Wall Hot Wall

    42. Use your scent knowledge • Identify scenting conditions • Surveyor’s tape, puff bottles/talc mirror scent pattern • Interpret pattern of alerts • Send canine from position which maximizes probability of detection

    43. Considerations • Hazardous materials • Live versus dead • Number of victims found • Distractions

    44. Questions?