Canine Search Specialist Training. Unit 5: Scent Theory. Unit Objective. Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to explain the theory of scent as it relates to the canine search for live victims in a collapsed structure. Enabling Objectives.
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Canine Search Specialist Training Unit 5: Scent Theory
Unit Objective Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to explain the theory of scent as it relates to the canine search for live victims in a collapsed structure
Enabling Objectives • Explain the rationale for understanding scent movement • Describe the factors that may affect scent • Describe how scent is transported away from the victim • Plan the search of a collapsed structure to efficiently work canines into scent
Rationale • Dogs “see” the world through their nose • Scent is 3-dimensional to them • Our job is to put them where they can best detect scent
Canine Olfactory System Olfactory sensory cell estimates • Human = 5 million • Canine = 220 million
CONTRIBUTORS TO HUMAN SCENT COMPLEX Adipose Bacterial Action MEOH H2SO4 Volatile Fatty Acids K, Cl, Urea, Ca Mg, PO4, HOH Human Scent Eccrine Sebaceous Sebum, Squalene Volatile Fatty Acids Amines Respiratory Tract GI Tract Apocrine Other factors: Genetic, Diet, Environment
The Raft Theory • Dying/dead, bacteria laden skin cells—called rafts • Rafts are shed from • Skin • Respiratory and digestive tracks
Approximately 40,000 per minute! Skin raft loss
“If one gram of butyric acid was made to evaporate evenly in all the rooms of a ten story office building, a man would barely be able to perceive its existence by standing in one of the rooms. However, if the same gram of butyric acid was diluted to fill the air above the entire city of Hamburg, the dog could still perceive it at an altitude of 300 feet.” William Syrotuck Scent and the Scenting Dog, pg. 13
How is scent dispersed? The scent is heaviest at the source and dispersed away from the victim in a cone
WIND Scent Dispersal
Environmental Influences • Temperature • Wind strength and direction • Humidity • Sun
Temperature • Hot • Cold • The temperature of victim versus the temperature of the environment
Wind • Strength • Direction
Humidity • High • Low • Rain
Sun • Clear • Overcast • Night
Day-time Patterns Night-time Flows
Structural Influences • Building architecture • Elevator shafts • Closed stairwells • Windows • Breached floors/walls
Structural Influences (continued) • Scent flows well in • Broken rubble • Light framing • Brick
Scent Flow and Detection The disaster search canine is trained to indicate the presence of a live victim by performing a focused bark alert at the point in the rubble where the strongest live human scent is emitted Bark! Bark!
DETECTION versus LOCATION Dogs are SCENT detectors NOT victim locators!
BARK Scent Flow—Channeling scent cone scent cone scent cone • Solid Slabs • Large Chunks
Solid Slabs • Large Chunks BARK BARK
Scent Source Detection • Be able to interpret your dog’s alert • Document • Debrief • Handler to STM • Handler to Handler
Scent Flow—Funneling Bark! Bark!
Scent Flow—Pooling Bark! Bark!
Typical Collapse Patterns • Lean-To • “V” • Pancake • Cantilever
What is this? Cold Wall Hot Wall
Use your scent knowledge • Identify scenting conditions • Surveyor’s tape, puff bottles/talc mirror scent pattern • Interpret pattern of alerts • Send canine from position which maximizes probability of detection
Considerations • Hazardous materials • Live versus dead • Number of victims found • Distractions