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Biotechnology and Medicine. Prof. S.K.Panda Department of Pathology All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Translational Medicine has Varying Meanings. The most explicit understanding is possibly

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slide1

Biotechnology and Medicine

Prof. S.K.Panda

Department of Pathology

All India Institute of Medical Sciences

slide2

Translational Medicine has Varying Meanings

The most explicit understanding is possibly

“Research where in a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease”

Bedside

Bench

slide3

The Kind of Man Power Required

  • Physician –Scientists. (with or without formal MD-PhD).
  • Collaborative groups consisting of Investigators interested in basic understanding in physical, Chemical and Biological sciences with Physicians interested in solving specific problems.
slide4

Areas

  • There are unlimited possibilities. However, the common areas
    • Molecular-Cell Biology  Clinical Practice
    • Computational Intelligence  Interface with Physiology
    • Physical & Chemical Research  Application in Biology
slide5

Basic research leads to clinical application

  • Inter disciplinary research collaboration
  • Educational programmes (MD/Ph.D. – physician scientist, DM-infectious disease including training etc.)
slide6

Cells in similar environment

Infected Cells

Molecules being modified

Virus Infection

Virus Infection

Cells

Replicon Transfection

Replicon Transfection

Un-infected

Cells

Infected Cells

Micro Array

Micro Array

2D + Maldi TOFF

2D + Maldi TOFF

Mass Mass

Mass Mass

Other Studies

Other Studies

Comparison

Identification of molecules of interest

Used in

Diagnosis

Therapeutic Dev.

Clinical

Epidemiological

slide7

Electronic

Cantilever

Diagnostic

Platform

  • Antigen – Ab Interaction
  • Mol. Hybridization
slide8

Visual recognition system/

Cochlear Implants/ Bionic limbs

Collaboration

Physics

Engineering

Electronics

Physiology

Etc.

slide9

ST Lab-on-Chip allows Functions Integrations

ST Lab-on-Chip

Minatec Sept. 2003

slide11

Lab-ON-a Chip

Micro Fludic

Peltier

Microarray

Electromotive Nucleic acid movement and Hybridization

Solid state portable laser scanner built to cell phone

Central data server.

Rural diagnostic

slide13

Biotechnology and therapeutics

Most diseases can be divided etiologically in to the following categories

  • Hereditary diseases
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neoplastic diseases
  • Degenerative diseases
  • Inflammatory Diseases
  • Endocrine Diseases
biotechnology can be used to treat several of them
Biotechnology can be used to treat several of them
  • By replacing altered genes.
  • By knocking out up-regulated genes.
  • By delivering deficient enzymes or other biological products.
  • By altering extraneously,response modifiers.
  • By making replacement cells in–vivo/ ex-vivo
  • By making transgenic organs for transplantation.
  • By producing antimicrobials, Ribozymes and gene silencing RNA.
slide15

RNA interference

  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism to regulate the expression of genes and the replication of viruses.
  • Mediated by double-stranded small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA).
  • RNAi technology is a comparatively recent discovery believed by scientists to constitute an important aspect of a cell’s natural defence mechanism against parasitic viruses.
  • Critically, the cell responds to a foreign (double stranded) form of siRNA introduced into the cell by destroying all internal mRNA with the same sequence as the siRNA.
slide17

Cell Therapy

  • Cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.
  • Two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans:
  • Embryonic stem cells (In the developing fetus, stem cells in developing tissues give rise to the multiple specialized cell types that make up the heart, lung, skin, and other tissues).

Examples- Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease.

  • Adult stem cells (bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease)
synthetic biology
Synthetic Biology

Engineering of new biological components and organisms and redesign of existing ones.