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Special Topics in Computer Engineering Wireless and Mobile Networks: I. Some of these Slides are Based on Slides by Kurose and Ross Prepared for Sections 6.1 – 6.3 of the Book Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet. Background:

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Special Topics in Computer Engineering Wireless and Mobile Networks: I


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    1. Special Topics in Computer EngineeringWireless and Mobile Networks: I Some of these Slides are Based on Slides by Kurose and Ross Prepared for Sections 6.1 – 6.3 of the Book Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    2. Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phones promise anytime untethered Internet access two important (but different) challenges communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Chapter 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    3. 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”) 6.4Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9Summary Chapter 6 outline CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    4. wireless hosts • laptop, PDA, IP phone • run applications • may be stationary (non-mobile) or mobile • wireless does not always mean mobility network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    5. base station • typically connected to wired network • relay - responsible for sending packets between wired network and wireless host(s) in its “area” • e.g., cell towers, 802.11 access points network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    6. network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network wireless link • typically used to connect mobile(s) to base station • also used as backbone link • multiple access protocol coordinates link access • various data rates, transmission distance CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    7. Outdoor 50 – 200m Mid range outdoor 200m – 4Km Long range outdoor 5Km – 20Km Indoor 10 – 30m Characteristics of selected wireless link standards 54 Mbps 802.11{a,g} 5-11 Mbps .11 p-to-p link 802.11b 1 Mbps 802.15 3G 384 Kbps UMTS / WCDMA , CDMA2000 2G 56 Kbps IS-95 CDMA, GSM CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    8. infrastructure mode • base station connects mobiles into wired network • handoff: mobile changes base station providing connection into wired network network infrastructure Elements of a wireless network CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    9. Elements of a wireless network Ad hoc mode • no base stations • nodes can only transmit to other nodes within link coverage • nodes organize themselves into a network: route among themselves CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    10. Wireless Link Characteristics Differences from wired link …. • decreased signal strength: radio signal attenuates as it propagates through matter (path loss) • interference from other sources: standardized wireless network frequencies (e.g., 2.4 GHz) shared by other devices (e.g., phone); devices (motors) interfere as well • multipath propagation: radio signal reflects off objects & ground, arriving at destination at slightly different times …. make communication across (even a point to point) wireless link much more “difficult” CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    11. B A C C C’s signal strength A’s signal strength B A space Wireless network characteristics Multiple wireless senders and receivers create additional problems (beyond multiple access): 1. Hidden terminal problem • B, A hear each other • B, C hear each other • A, C can not hear each other means A, C unaware of their interference at B 2. Signal fading: • B, A hear each other • B, C hear each other • A, C can not hear each other interferring at B CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    12. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular, satellite, etc) standards • unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning • all users share same frequency, but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data • encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) • decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence • allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”) CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    13. d0 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 d1 = -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M Di = SZi,m.cm m=1 M d0 = 1 d1 = -1 CDMA Encode/Decode channel output Zi,m Zi,m= di.cm data bits sender slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output code slot 1 slot 0 received input slot 0 channel output slot 1 channel output code receiver slot 1 slot 0 CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    14. CDMA: two-sender interference CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    15. 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“wi-fi”) 6.4Cellular Internet Access architecture standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9Summary Chapter 6 outline CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    16. 802.11b 2.4-5 GHz unlicensed radio spectrum up to 11 Mbps direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) in physical layer all hosts use same chipping code widely deployed, using base stations 802.11a 5-6 GHz range up to 54 Mbps 802.11g 2.4-5 GHz range up to 54 Mbps All use CSMA/CA for multiple access All have base-station and ad-hoc network versions IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    17. AP AP Internet 802.11 LAN architecture • wireless host communicates with base station • base station = access point (AP) • Basic Service Set (BSS) (aka “cell”) in infrastructure mode contains: • wireless hosts • access point (AP): base station • ad hoc mode: hosts only hub, switch or router BSS 1 BSS 2

    18. 802.11: Channels, association • 802.11b: 2.4GHz-2.485GHz frequency spectrum (85 MHz) divided into 11 channels at different frequencies • AP admin chooses frequency for AP • interference possible: channel can be same as that chosen by neighboring AP! • A WiFi jungle • any physical location where a wireless station receives a sufficiently strong signal from two or more APs • Each AP would • Be located in a different subnet • Have been independently assigned a channel CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    19. 802.11: Channels, association (cont. I) • host: must associate with an AP • scans channels, listening for beacon frames containing AP’s name (Service Set Identifier, SSID) and MAC address • selects AP to associate with • creates a virtual wire between itself and the AP • wireless host and AP dialogue with each other using 802.11 association protocol • wireless station joins subnet to which AP belongs • may perform authentication • will typically run DHCP to get IP address in AP’s subnet CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    20. 802.11: Channels, association (cont. II) • wireless host: may perform authentication • Companies permit access based on a wireless station’s MAC address • Internet cafés employ user names and passwords • AP communicates with an authentication server • One authentication server for many APs • Centralizing decisions of authentication • Keeping AP costs and complexity low CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    21. B A C C C’s signal strength A’s signal strength B A space IEEE 802.11: multiple access • avoid collisions: 2+ nodes transmitting at same time • 802.11: CSMA - sense before transmitting • don’t collide with ongoing transmission by other node • 802.11: no collision detection! • difficult to receive (sense collisions) when transmitting due to weak received signals (fading) • can’t sense all collisions in any case: hidden terminal, fading • goal: avoid collisions: CSMA/C(ollision)A(voidance) CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    22. DIFS data SIFS ACK IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA 802.11 sender 1 if sense channel idle for DIFS (Distributed Inter-frame Space) then transmit entire frame (no CD) 2 ifsense channel busy then • start random backoff time • timer counts down when channel is idle • When channel is busy. counter value remains frozen. • transmit when timer expires • if no ACK, increase random backoff interval, repeat 2 802.11 receiver - if frame received OK return ACK after SIFS {Short Inter-frame Spacing} • ACK needed due to hidden terminal problem sender receiver CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    23. Avoiding collisions (more) idea: allow sender to “reserve” channel rather than random access of data frames: avoid collisions of long data frames • sender first transmits small request-to-send (RTS) packets to AP using CSMA • RTSs may still collide with each other (but they’re short) • AP broadcasts clear-to-send CTS in response to RTS • RTS heard by all nodes • sender transmits data frame • other stations defer transmissions Avoid data frame collisions completely using small reservation packets! CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    24. RTS(B) RTS(A) reservation collision RTS(A) CTS(A) CTS(A) DATA (A) ACK(A) ACK(A) Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange B A AP defer time CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    25. 6 4 2 2 6 6 6 2 0 - 2312 frame control duration address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 payload CRC seq control 802.11 frame: addressing Address 4: used only in ad hoc mode Address 1: MAC address of wireless host or AP to receive this frame Address 3: MAC address of router interface to which AP is attached Address 2: MAC address of wireless host or AP transmitting this frame CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    26. router AP Internet R1 MAC addr AP MAC addr source address dest. address 802.3frame AP MAC addr H1 MAC addr R1 MAC addr address 3 address 2 address 1 802.11 frame 802.11 frame: addressing H1 R1 CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    27. 6 4 2 2 6 6 6 2 0 - 2312 frame control duration address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 payload CRC seq control 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Protocol version Type Subtype To AP From AP More frag Retry Power mgt More data WEP Rsvd 802.11 frame: more frame seq # (for reliable ARQ) duration of channel reserved transmission time (for data & RTS/CTS frames) frame type (RTS, CTS, ACK, data) CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    28. H1 remains in same IP subnet: IP address can remain same switch: which AP is associated with H1? self-learning: switch will see frame from H1 and “remember” which switch port can be used to reach H1 router 802.11: mobility within same subnet hub or switch BBS 1 AP 1 AP 2 H1 BBS 2 CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I

    29. P P P P P M M Master device Slave device Parked device (inactive) S S S S 802.15: WPAN, wireless personal area network • less than 10 m diameter • replacement for cables (mouse, keyboard, headphones) • ad hoc: no infrastructure • master/slaves: • slaves request permission to send (to master) • master grants requests • 802.15: evolved from Bluetooth specification • 2.4-2.5 GHz radio band • up to 721 kbps radius of coverage CPE 0907532:Wireless and Mobile Networks I