Lecture 5 Animal Evolution – The Invertebrates. Echinoderms. Means spiny-skinned. Coelomate animals with spines, spicules/plates of calcium carbonate in the body wall-serve as defensive functions. E.g Star fishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers Most have well-developed internal skeleton .By kert
Lecture 5 Animal Evolution – The Invertebrates. Echinoderms. Adults are brainless but with decentralized nervous system which responds to food, predators and so forth coming in any directions. Have tube-feet. Tube-feet: fluid-filled, muscular structures & sucker-like adhesive disks.By alessa
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Disks. Secondary Storage. Secondary Storage Typically Storage systems outside of “primary memory” Cannot access data using load/store instructions Characteristics Large: Terabytes Cheap: few cents / GB Persistent: data survives power loss Slow: 100us – 10ms to access RAM: 100ns access.
Disks. pmli. Outline. Interfaces Geometry Add new disks Installation procedure Filesystem check Add a disk using sysinstall RAID GEOM Appendix – SCSI & SAS. Disk Interfaces. Expensive!. SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface High performance and reliability IDE (or ATA)
Disks. Thomas Plagemann with slides from: Pål Halvorsen ( Ifi , UiO ), Kai Li (Princeton), Tore Larsen ( Ifi / UiTromsø ), Maarten van Steen (VU Amsterdam). Storage Technology. [Source: http:// www -03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_photo. html]. Filesystems & Disks.
Disks. The Memory Hierarchy. Each level acts as a cache for the layer below it. CPU. registers, L1 cache. L2 cache. primary memory. disk storage (secondary memory). random access. tape or optical storage (tertiary memory). sequential access. What does the disk look like?.
Disks. Capable of storing large quantities of data cheaply Non-volatile Extremely slow compared with cpu speed Performance of DBMS largely a function of the number of disk I/O operations that must be performed. Physical Disk Structure. Pages and Blocks. Data files decomposed into pages
Disks. Overview of Mass-Storage Structure In this section we present a general overview of the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices. Magnetic Disks
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Disks. CS 6560: Operating Systems Design. Disk. File System: Abstraction for Secondary Storage. CPU. Memory. Memory Bus (System Bus). Bridge. I/O Bus. NIC. Storage-Device Hierarchy. Current magnetic disks are actually substantially larger than optical disks (e.g., DVD, BlueRay)
Disks. CS-502, Operating Systems Fall 2007 (Slides include materials from Operating System Concepts , 7 th ed., by Silbershatz, Galvin, & Gagne and from Modern Operating Systems , 2 nd ed., by Tanenbaum). Reading Assignment. Silbershatz, §12.1–12.6 Except, §12.4, Disk Scheduling.