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  1. Deposit Insurance - the Indian System Usha Thorat Deputy Governor Reserve Bank of India March 29, 2007 International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  2. Introduction • Significant changes in the financial systems world over, in the recent years • Banking Regulation/Supervision and Deposit Insurance, critical for financial safety net, need to evolve continuously to meet the emerging challenges International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  3. Deposit Insurance -Historical Perspective The Global scene • Systemic crises in banking sector around the globe in last two decades • 112 episodes of systemic crisis in 93 countries and 51 episodes of borderline crisis in 46 countries (Caprio and Klingebiel, 1999). • Fiscal costs in the 1997 Thai and Korean banking crises exceeded 30% of GDP, In Indonesia, budgetary costs approached 50% of GDP (World Bank, 2001) • Full costs of such crises go beyond direct fiscal costs International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  4. Deposit Insurance - Historical Perspective At home, in India • Failure of Travancore National and Quilon Bank (1938), crisis in Bengal (1946-48) failure of Laxmi Bank, Palai Central Bank (1961) • Legislation of Deposit Insurance Act, 1961 • Establishment of Deposit Insurance Corporation • Integration of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee functions in 1978 – Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) set up International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  5. Financial Safety Net for Banking Sector • Financial safety nets to make systemic banking breakdowns less likely, and when they do occur, to limit the disruption and fiscal costs • Financial safety nets require, inter-alia, prudential regulation/supervision, lender of last resort, deposit insurance, a clearly defined resolution mechanism for banks in distress. • Deposit insurance is a key tool in protecting small depositors and ensuring public confidence in the banking system. International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  6. Indian Financial System – an Overview Indian Financial System comprises - • Banks, financial institutions, non banking companies and firms - functionally varied and geographically widespread • Vast network of more than eighty thousand branches of commercial banks, Local Area Banks, Regional Rural Banks, Rural Co-operative banks/institutions and Urban Cooperative banks International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  7. Deposit Insurance in India International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  8. Deposit Insurance in India International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  9. Deposit Insurance in India International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  10. Deposit Insurance in India Deposit Insurance in India - a Pay Box System • Infuses confidence in banking system • Contributes to smooth functioning of payments system • Reduces potential for moral hazard by placing limits on insurance • Facilitates exit of problem banks International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  11. Deposit Insurance in India Ownership and Governance • The DICGC, which operates the Deposit Insurance Scheme in India, has: • Government backing, • Is created under an Act of Parliament and is • Wholly owned by the Reserve Bank of India. International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  12. Deposit Insurance in India Moral hazard in deposit insurance – how avoided? • Only bank deposits are covered up to Rs.100000 per depositor • Stiff regulatory action to avoid moral hazard • Commercial banks-subject to adequate regulation/ supervision • Cooperative banks - problems in dual regulation; erosion of public confidence (2002); restoration of confidence through appropriate policy responses International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  13. Deposit Insurance in India Market Discipline • Reliance on market discipline to address moral hazard • Penalties levied on banks are placed in the public domain • Most commercial banks are listed entities • Audits and inspections, accountability for actions International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  14. Deposit Insurance in India Premium and Deposit Insurance funds • Uniform premium in India irrespective of the risk • Considering possibilities of moving over to risk based premium system • Premium from member-banks goes to fund Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) of DICGC (ex-ante) • Fund is invested only in Central Government securities. • Reserve Ratio : 0.92% (as of March 2006) • DIF has a line of credit from the Reserve Bank to meet any shortfall in funds requirement International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  15. Deposit Insurance in India Information sharing, liaison with Regulator • Information sharing arrangement with RBI • Deputy Governor of the RBI is the Chairperson of the Board of Directors of the Corporation. Government representative also on the Board • Close liaison maintained with the supervisory departments of Reserve Bank and NABARD International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  16. Deposit Insurance in India International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  17. Deposit Insurance in India Reimbursing Depositors • Corporation is required to settle claim within two months of receipt of claims. • liquidator is required to submit the claim list within three months of taking charge • Delay in submission of claim list by liquidators. Main reasons include delay in audit, poor maintenance of records, inclusion of ineligible deposit accounts, absence of documents, filing of appeals against liquidation order • Measures initiated to avoid delays including close monitoring and training liquidators and auditors International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  18. Deposit Insurance in India Recovery measures • Liquidators to repay Corporation on disposal of assets • Recovery performance poor, particularly in co-op banks • Measures to improve recovery performance - setting up recovery cells, proactive monitoring, steps to ensure appointment of professionally qualified liquidators, suitable amendment to DICGC Act initiated for according distinct priority to the Corporation in recoveries International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  19. Deposit Insurance in India Public Information and Awareness • Well-developed web-site with comprehensive information/ material • FAQs on deposit insurance, other publicity material is circulated to all banks • Complaint cells set-up in all regional offices with wide publicity International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  20. Our experience – run on a large bank • Run on a Multi State Urban Co-operative Bank in Gujarat in 2001 - large exposure to a Stock Broker, who suffered huge losses in share dealings • Substantial inter bank deposits from 233 out of 326 co-op banks in the State • Contagion effect - liquidity problem in the sector- a severe systemic risk • Reconstruction Scheme by Govt. in consultation with RBI - infusion of funds, retention of existing deposits, settlement of depositors’ claims • Proactive strategy of the central bank and DICGC, especially in treatment of affected banks, repayment of public deposits, helped revive public confidence in the system. International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007

  21. Deposit Insurance - the Indian System Thank You International Conference on Enhancing the Effectiveness of Deposit Insurance Operation, Hanoi March, 2007