Protein and Protein Supplements. Lecture 4. Calorie = the amount heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 14.5 C to 15.5 C. Kilocalorie (Kcal) = 1000 calorie Mega Calorie (Mcal) = 1000 kcal or 1,000,000 calories.
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Calorie = the amount heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 14.5 C to 15.5 C.
Kilocalorie (Kcal) = 1000 calorie
Mega Calorie (Mcal) = 1000 kcal or 1,000,000 calories.
Mcal/Kg (Kcal/kg) = amount of energy supplied by 1 kg of a particular feed stuff
Kg = 2.2 lbs
All cells synthesize proteins
Range from vary insoluble to highly soluble.
Large molecules ranging from 35,000 to several hundred thousand grams
Range of function in the body:
Metabolization of nutrients (enzymes)
Stimulating growth (hormones)
Long chains of Amino Acids animals
Production of proteins is regulated by genetic material in nucleus of the animals cells (DNA)
Most proteins found in plants and animals comprised of 21 amino acids
Source of Amino Acids must be provided.
Higher animals do not have the ability to synthesize all the Amino Acids (AA) required by all tissues.
Dietary source of AA must be provided for most animals
Essential, Semi-essential and Non Essential.
Limiting AA = needed to synthesize certain proteinsProtein cont’d
Limiting AA depends on species and diets i.e.
Microbial population synthesizes microbial protein in rumen and large intestine
Both essential and non essential from simple compounds such as Urea or Ammonia NH3
Must have a Nitrogen source
Lysine and methionine maybe limiting in High producing Dairy cattleMonogastric versus Ruminant
Biological Value (BV) animals
Measures the portion of dietary protein that when consumed are retained by the animal
Most proteins source in feeding animals are 75-80% digestible
Closer to the animals needs the higher the BV will be.
By-Pass Protein (UIP) vs (DIP)
Escapes degradation by microbes
Improves protein efficiency on NPN sources
Blending protein source to improve balance of AA in the diet
Excess AA are absorbed and the NH2 group is removed for new AA or converted to urea and excreted in urine The remaining Carbon structure is used to generate energy.Terms of Protein Nutrition
Protein deficiency animals
Poor growth rate
Reduced milk production
High infant death rate
Subclinical - difficult to diagnose
BUN or MUN values
Mobilization of Protein from muscle tissue.
Excess Dietary Protein
Expensive to producer
Energy Problem not Protein problem
Must have adequate water
Urea or Non-protein Nitrogen can cause death from toxicity in Ruminants if inadequate levels of CHO in diet
Exceeds the amount of NH3 that the liver can detoxifyProtein Cont’d
Energy source do supply some Protein but usually not enough to supply the total needs of the animal
Usually more than 20% CP
Urea and BiuretProtein Supplements
Dehulled, solvent-extracted SBOM to supply the total needs of the animal
Higher protein levels
Extruded whole Soybean
Used as a partial replacement of milk proteins in milk replacers.
Soy protein concentrate
Food trade product
Spun into fiber – resembling meatSoybeans cont’d
Good but variable quality product to supply the total needs of the animal
Variation in processing procedures
41 % but varies between 44-48%
Low in Cystine, methionine,lysine.
Low in Ca and carotene
Palatable in ruminants but less so in swine and poultry.
Good local source
Gossypol Toxicity problem for monogastrics. Two types
Free gossypol (Toxic form)
BoundCottonseed meal- (CSM)
Sunflower Meal to supply the total needs of the animal
Relatively high fiber
Grown in cooler and drier climates
Better for ruminants than monogastrics from fiber standpoint
CP is relatively low in comparison. (35%)
Deficient in lysine
High in Selenium
High fiber poor AA distribution and laxative effect makes it poor product for poultryOther Oil Meals
1% of corn crop used to manufacture beer and liquors to supply the total needs of the animal
Distillers Dry grains
Different names depending on the grain used
High fiber very palatable
Energy value is medium to high
Lysine appears to be the most limiting AA
Fiber levels 18-19%
High by pass protein
Used in dairy rationsDistillers or Brewery Products
Meat meal to supply the total needs of the animal
Meat and Bone meal
Meat and Bone Tankage
Difference is meal can not contain blood.
Differentiated by P content
Tankage is standardized by the addition of dried blood meal.
81-87% digestible protein
Limiting AA’s are lysine, methionine, and threonine in swine.
Protein quality is lower than fish meals or SBOM.Protein from Animal Origin
Two types to supply the total needs of the animal
Fish caught for meal
Fish Residue meal
Fish residue after processing
High in digestible Protein
High in essential AA
Flavor maybe objectionable if fed in large amounts
Not digested in Rumen – by pass protein source.Marine protein sources
Algae – potential Protein source to supply the total needs of the animal
10 times as much protein per unit of land as soybeans
Low fiber content
Fresh water algae
Low Biological value of protein
Brewers dried yeast
Grain distillers dried yeast
High in most Vit B’s
Paper pulp milling by product
10-13% fatSingle Cell Proteins-SCP
Usually refers to added sources to supply the total needs of the animal
Primarily in function rumen
Rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia and carbon dioxide. (NH3 and CO2)
Ammonia is rapidly incorporated into AA and microbial protein for use in the host as a protein source.
Thus the animal does not utilize urea directly. Feeding the microbes.
Not used in monogastricsNPN cont’s