Protein and protein supplements
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Protein and Protein Supplements. Lecture 4. Calorie = the amount heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 14.5 C to 15.5 C. Kilocalorie (Kcal) = 1000 calorie Mega Calorie (Mcal) = 1000 kcal or 1,000,000 calories.

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Calorie = the amount heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 14.5 C to 15.5 C.

Kilocalorie (Kcal) = 1000 calorie

Mega Calorie (Mcal) = 1000 kcal or 1,000,000 calories.

Mcal/Kg (Kcal/kg) = amount of energy supplied by 1 kg of a particular feed stuff

Kg = 2.2 lbs

Review of nutrients
Review of Nutrients temperature of 1 gram of water 14.5 C to 15.5 C.

  • Water

  • Carbohydrates

    • TDN, ME, DE, NEm and NEg and NEl (Mcal/kg. or lb.)

  • Proteins ( %N X 6.25)

    • CP, DP and By-pass protein (%)

  • Lipids (1 gram = 2.25 as much energy as CHO)

    • TDN, ME, DE, NEm and NEg and NEl (Mcal/kg. or lb.)

  • Minerals

    • Macro Ca, P Na Cl Mg K and S (%)

    • Micro Co, Cu,I, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn(PPM or mg/kg)

  • Vitamins

    • A, D, E, K and water soluble (B) (IU/g, ppm, or mg/kg)


Highest [ ], except water, in all living organisms and animals

All cells synthesize proteins

Range from vary insoluble to highly soluble.

Large molecules ranging from 35,000 to several hundred thousand grams

Range of function in the body:


Digesting (Pepsin)

Metabolization of nutrients (enzymes)

Stimulating growth (hormones)

Defense (immunoglobulins


Protein cont d

Long chains of Amino Acids animals

Production of proteins is regulated by genetic material in nucleus of the animals cells (DNA)

Most proteins found in plants and animals comprised of 21 amino acids

Source of Amino Acids must be provided.

Higher animals do not have the ability to synthesize all the Amino Acids (AA) required by all tissues.

Dietary source of AA must be provided for most animals

Essential, Semi-essential and Non Essential.

Limiting AA = needed to synthesize certain proteins

Protein cont’d

Monogastric versus ruminant

Monogastrics animals

Limiting AA depends on species and diets i.e.





Microbial population synthesizes microbial protein in rumen and large intestine

Both essential and non essential from simple compounds such as Urea or Ammonia NH3

Must have a Nitrogen source

Lysine and methionine maybe limiting in High producing Dairy cattle

Monogastric versus Ruminant

Terms of protein nutrition

Biological Value (BV) animals

Measures the portion of dietary protein that when consumed are retained by the animal

Most proteins source in feeding animals are 75-80% digestible

Closer to the animals needs the higher the BV will be.

By-Pass Protein (UIP) vs (DIP)

Escapes degradation by microbes

Improves protein efficiency on NPN sources

Associative Effect

Blending protein source to improve balance of AA in the diet


Excess AA are absorbed and the NH2 group is removed for new AA or converted to urea and excreted in urine The remaining Carbon structure is used to generate energy.

Terms of Protein Nutrition

Protein cont d1

Protein deficiency animals


Poor growth rate

Reduced milk production

Reduced fertility

High infant death rate

Subclinical - difficult to diagnose

BUN or MUN values

Mobilization of Protein from muscle tissue.

Excess Dietary Protein

Expensive to producer

Loose feces


Energy Problem not Protein problem

Must have adequate water

Urea or Non-protein Nitrogen can cause death from toxicity in Ruminants if inadequate levels of CHO in diet

Exceeds the amount of NH3 that the liver can detoxify

Protein Cont’d

Protein supplements

Energy source do supply some Protein but usually not enough to supply the total needs of the animal

Usually more than 20% CP





Urea and Biuret

Protein Supplements

Utilization of oilseeds for feed million metric tons
Utilization of Oilseeds for Feed to supply the total needs of the animal(Million metric tons)

Typical protein sources
Typical Protein Sources to supply the total needs of the animal

Oil meals
Oil Meals to supply the total needs of the animal

  • Soybean Oil Meal

    • Quite Palatable, highly digestible, and has a high energy value.

    • Methionine is the most limiting AA for Monogastrics

    • B vitamin content is low

    • Raw Soybeans have a lowered nutritive value therefore needs to be heat treated or after oil extracted.

Soybeans cont d

Dehulled, solvent-extracted SBOM to supply the total needs of the animal

Higher protein levels

Extruded whole Soybean

Full fat

38 %CP

18% Fat

5% fiber

Soy Flour

Used as a partial replacement of milk proteins in milk replacers.

Soy protein concentrate

Food trade product

70% CP

Spun into fiber – resembling meat

Soybeans cont’d

Cottonseed meal csm

Good but variable quality product to supply the total needs of the animal

Variation in processing procedures

41 % but varies between 44-48%

Low in Cystine, methionine,lysine.

Low in Ca and carotene

Palatable in ruminants but less so in swine and poultry.

Good local source

Gossypol Toxicity problem for monogastrics. Two types

Free gossypol (Toxic form)


Cottonseed meal- (CSM)

Csm and gossypol
CSM and Gossypol to supply the total needs of the animal

  • Two types of extractions

    • Prepress solvent highest bound type

    • Screw press highest level of Free gossypol

  • Monogastrics - levels

    • 40,80,100 ppm are not a problem for layer, broilers and swine, respectively.

    • Toxicity problems can be reduced by addition of iron salts such as Ferrous sulfate.

Csm and ruminants
CSM and Ruminants to supply the total needs of the animal

  • Might be inactivated by rumen microbes

    • >24g/day of free gossypol in high producing cows resulted in:

      • Reduced blood hemoglobin

      • Erythrocyte fragility

      • Total protein of plasma

      • Elevated respiration rates

    • Feeding large amounts of whole cottonseed with CSM needs close attention.

Other oil meals

Sunflower Meal to supply the total needs of the animal

Protein 50%

Relatively high fiber

Grown in cooler and drier climates

Better for ruminants than monogastrics from fiber standpoint

Linseed meal

Flax seed

CP is relatively low in comparison. (35%)

Deficient in lysine

High in Selenium

High fiber poor AA distribution and laxative effect makes it poor product for poultry

Other Oil Meals

Distillers or brewery products

1% of corn crop used to manufacture beer and liquors to supply the total needs of the animal

Distillers Dry grains

Different names depending on the grain used

High fiber very palatable

27-29% CP

Energy value is medium to high

Lysine appears to be the most limiting AA

Fiber levels 18-19%

High by pass protein

Used in dairy rations

Distillers or Brewery Products

Protein from animal origin

Meat meal to supply the total needs of the animal

Meat and Bone meal

Meat and Bone Tankage

Difference is meal can not contain blood.

Differentiated by P content

Tankage is standardized by the addition of dried blood meal.

81-87% digestible protein

Limiting AA’s are lysine, methionine, and threonine in swine.

Protein quality is lower than fish meals or SBOM.

Protein from Animal Origin

Marine protein sources

Two types to supply the total needs of the animal

Fish Meal

Fish caught for meal

Fish Residue meal

Fish residue after processing

High in digestible Protein

High in essential AA

Flavor maybe objectionable if fed in large amounts

Not digested in Rumen – by pass protein source.

Marine protein sources


Single cell proteins scp

Algae – potential Protein source to supply the total needs of the animal

10 times as much protein per unit of land as soybeans

50% protein

Low fiber content

Fresh water algae

Low Biological value of protein


Brewers dried yeast

Grain distillers dried yeast

40% CP

High in most Vit B’s

Bacterial SCP

Brewers SCP


Paper pulp milling by product

50% CP

10-13% fat

Single Cell Proteins-SCP

Non protein nitrogen npn
Non Protein Nitrogen- NPN to supply the total needs of the animal

  • Any compound that contains nitrogen but are not present in the polypeptide form of protein

  • Organic NPN include

    • Ammonia NH3

    • Urea

    • Amides amines amino acids, and some peptides

  • Inorganic NPN (usually salts)

    • Ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphates and ammonium sulfate.

Npn cont s

Usually refers to added sources to supply the total needs of the animal


Primarily in function rumen

Rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia and carbon dioxide. (NH3 and CO2)

Ammonia is rapidly incorporated into AA and microbial protein for use in the host as a protein source.

Thus the animal does not utilize urea directly. Feeding the microbes.

Not used in monogastrics

NPN cont’s