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Industrialization of Russia and Japan . Ch apter 27. I. Introduction. Russia and Japan lagged behind most of Europe Russia gained ground due to large population Japan gained ground due to ability to imitate while maintaining identity. II. Russia.

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i introduction
I. Introduction
  • Russia and Japan lagged behind most of Europe
    • Russia gained ground due to large population
    • Japan gained ground due to ability to imitate while maintaining identity
ii russia
II. Russia
  • Became concerned with lack of industrialization
    • Napoleon’s invasion
    • Wealth of other nations
  • Reforms, Revolts and Industrialization
    • Russian serfs complain about inequality
      • Full freedom or “freedom” while keeping traditions?
    • Decembrist Uprising
      • Army officers
      • Nicholas I becomes more repressive
ii russia1
II. Russia
  • Crimean War 1854-1856
    • Wanted to expanded into Poland and Ottoman Empire
    • British and France were concerned with Russia becoming too powerful
      • Help Ottoman Empire to defeat Russia
      • British concerned with losing trade advantage in India
    • Russia was at a large industrial disadvantage
      • Encouraged Alexander II that the military needed reforms
ii russia2
II. Russia
  • Reforms
    • Emancipation of the Serfs
      • Serfs got most of the land (best for aristocracy)
      • Tied to villages until redemption payments made
        • Kept them poor and repressed
      • Created larger urban labor force
      • Peasant uprisings
    • Political changes
      • Zemstvoes- local rulers: roads, schools and local issues
      • Military- merit not birth
    • Social
      • Increased literacy, more lenient social standards
ii russia3
II. Russia
  • Industrialization
    • Guided by the state
    • Trans-Siberian Railroad-
      • Stimulated coal and iron production
      • Used to export grain
    • Count Sergei Witte
      • Finance minister
      • High tariffs
      • Improved banking
      • Foreign investors to boost production- ½ of industry foreign owned
        • Russia became greatly indebted to British, German and French
ii russia4
II. Russia
  • Industrialization continued
    • Top 5 in Steel, oil and textiles due to size
    • Illiterate peasants did not improve agriculture
    • No middle class
      • All state sponsored and regulated
        • Can’t make money (and people don’t like that!)
ii russia5
II. Russia
  • Revolutions and Uprisings
    • Initially, mostly peasants
      • Redemption pay and famines
    • Intelligentsia
      • Radical intellectuals
      • Terrorist
      • Anarchist
      • Industrialize without materialism
    • Alexander II assassinated
      • Censorship and resistance to reform
      • Minorities repressed
        • Jewish pogroms
ii russia6
II. Russia
  • Vladimir IlyichUlyanov
    • AKA Vladimir Lenin
    • Modified Marxism for Russia
      • Didn’t need middle-class
    • Formed the Bolsheviks
      • Majority that wasn’t a majority
    • Encouraged revolt of working class
      • Poor working conditions
ii russia7
II. Russia
  • Revolution of 1905
    • Expansion rather than fixing

problems

    • Helped create Slavic Nations
      • Serbia and Bulgaria
      • Promised to protect them

(WWI)

    • Result of Russo-Japanese War
      • Fought over Korea
      • Japan attacked without declaring

war

      • Russia had a hard time mobilizing
ii russia8
II. Russia
  • Revolution of 1905 Results
    • Peasants revolted
    • Workers went on strike
    • Police repression
    • To help stop revolt, the Duma was formed
      • A national parliament
    • Stolypin Reforms
      • Peasants gained freedom from redemption payments
      • Freedom to buy/sell land
      • Kulaks – rich land owners that improved agriculture ($$$)
    • Eventually government represses the people again
iii japan
III. Japan
  • Japan became more nationalistic
    • Terakoya schools
      • Confucianism, reading and Japanese culture
      • For commoners
    • Dutch Studies
      • Focus on Dutch language (trade in Nagasaki)
      • Studies Dutch medicine once foreign literature ban was lifted
iii japan1
III. Japan
  • Commodore Matthew Perry (1853)
    • Took a number of American steamships to Edo Bay to force the Japanese to open for trade with US
    • 1854 2nd visit to Japan to force them to allow a US consul in its borders.
    • Kept Americans under American law and not Japanese
    • Forced Japan out of isolationism
      • Emperor no longer isolated
      • Samurai retaliate by attacking foreigners
        • Ended with Meiji movement that put Emperor

Mutsuhito on the throne- promoted reforms

iii japan2
III. Japan
  • Meiji Reforms
    • Abolished feudalism and Samurai
      • Became poor and revolted in 1877
        • Emperor used conscripted troops with European weapons
          • Influenced “Last Samurai”
    • Expanded bureaucracy with Civil Service Exams
    • Formed Diet as a form of parliament
      • Passed laws and budgets
      • 5% of men could vote
    • Emperor controlled military
iii japan3
III. Japan
  • Japanese Industrialization
    • Had to import raw materials
    • Education based to train loyal workers
      • Government controlled and censored
    • Westernization
      • Styles and medicine
      • Yet kept Shintoism and did not convert to Christianity
      • Family values
    • Militarization
      • 1st Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
        • Result of need for resources
      • Russo-Japanese War
iv conclusion
IV. Conclusion
  • Yellow Peril
    • Asian colonization
  • Russia’s influence in Eastern Europe influences WWI