F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy4.2.1 Kidney Failure and Testing • outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use of renal dialysis and transplants for the treatment of kidney failure • describe how urine samples can be used to test for pregnancy and detect misuse of anabolic steroids
Kidney failure can be caused by: • Diabetes mellitus (type I and type II sugar diabetes) • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Kidney Infection • If the kidneys fail, excess water and urea cannot be removed, which will eventually lead to death
Kidney Failure: Treatment Research Task Your task is to create a poster (similar to the year 12 project week) that explains the following. You can use Biology 2 p60-62 to help you • Dialysis including haemodyalysis and peritoneal dialysis • Kidney Trasnsplants
Success Criteria • Your poster must contain: • The science behind Dialysis • The advantages and disadvantages of Kidney Transplants • Appropriate diagrams
Questions Using Cambridge Biology (p56-59) or OCR Biology (p50-51), answer the following as fully as you can: • How can urine be used to detect pregnancy? • How can urine be used to test for drug use in sports?
How can Urine be used to detect Pregnancy? • Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) secreted by embryo • Found in urine 6 days after conception • Pregnancy tests contain monoclonal antibodies • Antibody is specific to hCG • Test strip soaked in urine • hCG attaches to antibody tagged with a blue bead • hCG-antibody complex moves up the strip until it attaches to a strip of immobilised antibodies • This creates two blue lines- One to ensure the test is working, the second to indicate pregnancy
How can Urine be used to test for drug use in sport? • Anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis in cells • Causes build up of tissue in the muscles • Have a half life of 16 hours • Gas chromatography used to detect presence of steroids • Sample is vapourised with a solvent and passed down a tube • Absorption agent in tube lining is analysed to make a chromatogram