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Naturalism. Patsy Hamby. Influences on Naturalism. Evolutionary theory of Darwinism Survival of the fittest Studies related to social environment Feelings, attitudes of the local community What determines one’s character? What influences one’s actions?. Characteristics.

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Naturalism

Naturalism

Patsy Hamby


Influences on naturalism
Influences on Naturalism

  • Evolutionary theory of Darwinism

    • Survival of the fittest

  • Studies related to social environment

    • Feelings, attitudes of the local community

      What determines one’s character?

      What influences one’s actions?


Characteristics
Characteristics

  • Dark harshness of life

  • Pessimism

    • Life is looked upon as a downhill struggle with the only outcome in passiveness or death.

  • Determinism

    • No free will; control taken over by nature or fate

    • Forces beyond man’s control

  • Nature indifferent to the human struggle


Based on determinism
Based on Determinism

  • Determinism:

    • Man responds to environmental forces and internal stresses or drives.

      • Has no control over the environment

      • Does not understand the environment


Biological determinism
Biological Determinism

Man is an animal endlessly engaged in a brutal struggle for survival (Darwin)


Psychological determinism
Psychological Determinism

Man cannot control his emotions or actions very easily.

Man is an animal driven by fundamental urges --- fear, hunger, etc. (Freud).


Socioeconomic determinism
Socioeconomic Determinism

Man is a victim of his environment because he has little control over the social and economic factors in the environment (Marx).


Mechanical determinism
Mechanical Determinism

Technology is growing out of control and will so dehumanize the society. Man will be replaced by machines which can do things better and faster (Newton).


Characters
CHARACTERS

  • In conflict

    • Man vs nature

      • At the mercy of nature

      • Nature always wins

    • Man vs self

      • Attempts to control his own fate are futile

      • No such thing as “free will”

      • Fighting for survival

  • Detachment

    • Nameless characters


Naturalism

Jack London (1876-1916):

The Call of the Wild

White Fang

“To Build a Fire”


Naturalism

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)

The Red Badge of Courage

“The Open Boat”