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Otto, Chapter 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers (87-119) Otto, Chapter 5: Enhancing Language Development in Infants and Toddlers (120-49). Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105) Shannon Phillips. Language Development. Infant Phonetic Development. Receptive

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teaching language arts edu 105 shannon phillips

Otto, Chapter 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers (87-119)Otto, Chapter 5: Enhancing Language Development in Infants and Toddlers (120-49)

Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105)

Shannon Phillips

infant phonetic development
Infant Phonetic Development
  • Receptive
    • 25th week of gestation: hear sounds in utero
    • 1 Month: Distinguish between specific phonemes and recognize categories especially with prosodic features
    • 2 Months: Can recognize sentences
    • Prefer to listen to home language
    • Attend to phoneme-sound contrasts in home language
  • Expressive
    • Non-reflexive vocalizations
    • Cooing (vowels)
    • Babbling (consonants and vowels) and Intonated Babble

How would early storybook sharing experiences stimulate an awareness of the sounds of language?

toddler phonetic development
Toddler Phonetic Development
  • Know what sounds they can and cannot make
    • Might avoid stating those words, shy away
  • Awareness of sound similarities and patterns
  • Begin to associate sounds and words with print
infant semantic development
Infant Semantic Development
  • Building conceptual knowledge and vocabulary through
    • Symbol formation
      • Eye contact and shared reference
    • Turn-taking
    • Mapping and Verbal mapping
    • Crying fussing=sociocultural connection (adults give context)
    • Non-verbals: Reaching, Pointing
    • Understand intonation
  • 4-5 months: Can predict stories (non-verbals and sounds)
  • 12 months: Stable speech units around protowords/idiomorphs
infant semantic development6
Infant Semantic Development
  • In what ways can the sharing of storybooks with infants contribute to the development of semantic knowledge of language?
  • What are adult storybook sharing behaviors that would contribute to infants’ semantic knowledge development?
toddler semantic development
Toddler Semantic Development
  • Receptive vocabulary larger than expressive
    • 1-2 years: 20-50 words in productive vocabulary
    • 18-24 months: 200-300 words in receptive vocabulary
  • 1 word: 1 referent
  • 2 ½-4 years: Categorize (overextension and underextension)
  • One- and two-word utterances understood through context of use
  • Active exploration of environment from caregiver through verbal mapping and linguistic scaffolding
  • Literacy-rich environments = explore meanings in written language
infant syntactic development
Infant Syntactic Development
  • Receptive knowledge increases with behavior
    • 1 word expressive: 5-6 words receptive
  • Infants perceive and process language in multiple word segments
  • Infants most receptive and respond non-verbally or semi-verbally to intonation
  • Older infants use prosody to add meaning to one-word utterances
  • Role of child-directed speech
    • Simple syntax used by adult
    • May elicit non-verbal or verbal responses from infant
    • Used in mediating storybook sharing
toddler syntactic development
Toddler Syntactic Development
  • Telegraphic speech
    • 2-3 word utterances
      • Content words
      • No function words, e.g. articles, prepositions, conjunctions
    • Evidence of syntactic and semantic knowledge (“Daddy come”)
      • Various syntactic-semantic patterns, e.g. action-object
      • Grammar is implied
  • Beginning use of pronouns—not strong but beginning
    • Pronouns replace nouns
    • Begin with subjective form (she) and incorporate objective forms (her)
    • “I” and “you”: Difficult because of the shared roles of speaker-listener
toddler syntactic development10
Toddler Syntactic Development
  • Role of child-directed speech
    • Gradual increase in syntactic complexity
    • Model of more complex syntax (expansion)

Question: How can you work with toddlers to improve syntactic development?

  • Role of storybook sharing experiences
    • As more story text is read, child is exposed to more complex syntax.
    • Focused storybook conversations use shared reference, verbal mapping, mediation, and linguistic scaffolding.
infant morphemic development
Infant Morphemic Development
  • Receptive knowledge of morphemes is acquired as infants
    • Can hear differences between plural (1 and many), verb tense, and possessives (inflectional morphemes)
    • Home and community
infant morphemic development12
Infant Morphemic Development

Begin to use

  • 20-24 months: Inflectional morphemes
    • Plural
    • Verb tense-present progressive, --ing
    • Prepositions
  • Noun-verb agreement
  • Pronouns (I, me, mine, it)
infant pragmatic development
Infant Pragmatic Development
  • Actions of others = Outcome or intent
  • Speech = Outcome or intent
  • 6-7 months: Infants’ gestures accompanied by vocalizations
  • 10 months: Gesture = intent
  • 1 year: idiomorphs accompany gestures
infant pragmatic development14
Infant Pragmatic Development
  • Infants aware of how language is used in different settings with adults and older children
  • Turn-taking and shared reference
    • Dialogue/“conversations”
    • Social routines
    • Prosody = intent
  • Activities: Greetings, peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake, reading storybooks
    • Books have meaning—language has meaning—understanding of the process of reading
toddler pragmatic development
Toddler Pragmatic Development
  • Halliday is crucial
  • Conversations are more verbal
    • Attention-getting words and gestures
    • Gestures increase with semantic knowledge of language
    • Words take over—decrease in gestures
toddler pragmatic development16
Emergent Readers and Writers!

Show awareness of how written language is used in books and in community

Questioning

Imitative behavior

“reading”

“writing”

18 months: Zone of proximal development

Bring in mail

Read cards

Hold book and turn pages

Jabber while reading with intonation

Making grocery lists

Writing letters

Toddler Pragmatic Development