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Otto, Chapter 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers (87-119) Otto, Chapter 5: Enhancing Language Development in Infants and Toddlers (120-49). Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105) Shannon Phillips. Language Development. Infant Phonetic Development. Receptive

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teaching language arts edu 105 shannon phillips

Otto, Chapter 4: Language Development of Infants and Toddlers (87-119)Otto, Chapter 5: Enhancing Language Development in Infants and Toddlers (120-49)

Teaching Language Arts (EDU-105)

Shannon Phillips

infant phonetic development
Infant Phonetic Development
  • Receptive
    • 25th week of gestation: hear sounds in utero
    • 1 Month: Distinguish between specific phonemes and recognize categories especially with prosodic features
    • 2 Months: Can recognize sentences
    • Prefer to listen to home language
    • Attend to phoneme-sound contrasts in home language
  • Expressive
    • Non-reflexive vocalizations
    • Cooing (vowels)
    • Babbling (consonants and vowels) and Intonated Babble

How would early storybook sharing experiences stimulate an awareness of the sounds of language?

toddler phonetic development
Toddler Phonetic Development
  • Know what sounds they can and cannot make
    • Might avoid stating those words, shy away
  • Awareness of sound similarities and patterns
  • Begin to associate sounds and words with print
infant semantic development
Infant Semantic Development
  • Building conceptual knowledge and vocabulary through
    • Symbol formation
      • Eye contact and shared reference
    • Turn-taking
    • Mapping and Verbal mapping
    • Crying fussing=sociocultural connection (adults give context)
    • Non-verbals: Reaching, Pointing
    • Understand intonation
  • 4-5 months: Can predict stories (non-verbals and sounds)
  • 12 months: Stable speech units around protowords/idiomorphs
infant semantic development6
Infant Semantic Development
  • In what ways can the sharing of storybooks with infants contribute to the development of semantic knowledge of language?
  • What are adult storybook sharing behaviors that would contribute to infants’ semantic knowledge development?
toddler semantic development
Toddler Semantic Development
  • Receptive vocabulary larger than expressive
    • 1-2 years: 20-50 words in productive vocabulary
    • 18-24 months: 200-300 words in receptive vocabulary
  • 1 word: 1 referent
  • 2 ½-4 years: Categorize (overextension and underextension)
  • One- and two-word utterances understood through context of use
  • Active exploration of environment from caregiver through verbal mapping and linguistic scaffolding
  • Literacy-rich environments = explore meanings in written language
infant syntactic development
Infant Syntactic Development
  • Receptive knowledge increases with behavior
    • 1 word expressive: 5-6 words receptive
  • Infants perceive and process language in multiple word segments
  • Infants most receptive and respond non-verbally or semi-verbally to intonation
  • Older infants use prosody to add meaning to one-word utterances
  • Role of child-directed speech
    • Simple syntax used by adult
    • May elicit non-verbal or verbal responses from infant
    • Used in mediating storybook sharing
toddler syntactic development
Toddler Syntactic Development
  • Telegraphic speech
    • 2-3 word utterances
      • Content words
      • No function words, e.g. articles, prepositions, conjunctions
    • Evidence of syntactic and semantic knowledge (“Daddy come”)
      • Various syntactic-semantic patterns, e.g. action-object
      • Grammar is implied
  • Beginning use of pronouns—not strong but beginning
    • Pronouns replace nouns
    • Begin with subjective form (she) and incorporate objective forms (her)
    • “I” and “you”: Difficult because of the shared roles of speaker-listener
toddler syntactic development10
Toddler Syntactic Development
  • Role of child-directed speech
    • Gradual increase in syntactic complexity
    • Model of more complex syntax (expansion)

Question: How can you work with toddlers to improve syntactic development?

  • Role of storybook sharing experiences
    • As more story text is read, child is exposed to more complex syntax.
    • Focused storybook conversations use shared reference, verbal mapping, mediation, and linguistic scaffolding.
infant morphemic development
Infant Morphemic Development
  • Receptive knowledge of morphemes is acquired as infants
    • Can hear differences between plural (1 and many), verb tense, and possessives (inflectional morphemes)
    • Home and community
infant morphemic development12
Infant Morphemic Development

Begin to use

  • 20-24 months: Inflectional morphemes
    • Plural
    • Verb tense-present progressive, --ing
    • Prepositions
  • Noun-verb agreement
  • Pronouns (I, me, mine, it)
infant pragmatic development
Infant Pragmatic Development
  • Actions of others = Outcome or intent
  • Speech = Outcome or intent
  • 6-7 months: Infants’ gestures accompanied by vocalizations
  • 10 months: Gesture = intent
  • 1 year: idiomorphs accompany gestures
infant pragmatic development14
Infant Pragmatic Development
  • Infants aware of how language is used in different settings with adults and older children
  • Turn-taking and shared reference
    • Dialogue/“conversations”
    • Social routines
    • Prosody = intent
  • Activities: Greetings, peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake, reading storybooks
    • Books have meaning—language has meaning—understanding of the process of reading
toddler pragmatic development
Toddler Pragmatic Development
  • Halliday is crucial
  • Conversations are more verbal
    • Attention-getting words and gestures
    • Gestures increase with semantic knowledge of language
    • Words take over—decrease in gestures
toddler pragmatic development16
Emergent Readers and Writers!

Show awareness of how written language is used in books and in community


Imitative behavior



18 months: Zone of proximal development

Bring in mail

Read cards

Hold book and turn pages

Jabber while reading with intonation

Making grocery lists

Writing letters

Toddler Pragmatic Development