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CHAPTER 10. MEASUREMENT IN MARKETING RESEARCH. Important Topics of This Chapter. Basic types question-response format. Consideration of choosing a question response-format. Measurement and scale characteristics in a question-response format. Levels of measurement of scales.

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chapter 10



important topics of this chapter
Important Topics of This Chapter
  • Basic types question-response format.
  • Consideration of choosing a question response-format.
  • Measurement and scale characteristics in a question-response format.
  • Levels of measurement of scales.
  • Various types scaled-response question formats.
  • Reliability and validity of measurements.
the questionnaire s position in the research process
The Questionnaire’s “Position” in the Research Process












criteria for a good questionnaire
Criteria for a GoodQuestionnaire

To design a good questionnaire, the following issues should be considered:

Does it Provide the Necessary Decision-Making Information?

Does it Consider the Respondent?

basic question response format
Basic Question-ResponseFormat
  • Editing
    • Refers to going through the questionnaire to make certain the “skip patterns” are followed and required questions are filled out.
    • A skip pattern is the sequence in which questions are asked.
  • Open-Ended Response Format Questions:
    • An open-ended question is one that does not contain prerecorded possible responses:
      • Un-probed format:
        • Seeks no additional information from respondents.
      • Probed format:
        • Researcher may ask comments or statement from the respondents.
      • Response format:
        • Researcher may ask additional information.
basic question response format cont
Basic Question-Response Format (cont.)
  • Closed-Ended Response Format Questions:
    • Dichotomous closed-ended questions:
      • Yes/No options.
    • Multiple category closed-ended questions:
      • They are very popular question style.
  • Scaled-response Questions:
    • Un-labeled scaled-response format:
      • Purely numerical or only endpoints are identified.
    • Labeled scaled-response format:
      • All of the scaled position are identified.
considerations in choosing a questions response format
Considerations in Choosing A Questions Response Format
  • Nature of property being measured:
    • Different type of question format must be used.
  • Previous research studies:
    • Questionnaires may be used with permission.
  • Data collection mode:
    • Mail, telephone, personal/computer interviews.
  • Ability of the respondents:
    • Previous research experiences may help.
  • Scale level desired:
    • 3, or 5, or 7 points scales.
basic concepts in measurement
Basic Concepts in Measurement
  • Objects:
    • Consumers, brands, stores, advertisements.
  • Properties:
    • Demographic characteristics.
  • Objective properties:
    • Physically verifiable.
  • Subjective properties:
    • Cannot be directly observed, such as person’s attitude and intentions.
scale characteristics
Scale Characteristics
  • Description:
    • Agree/Disagree, Approve/Disapprove
  • Order:
    • Size of the descriptor .
  • Distance:
    • Two cars Vs. one car family.
  • Origin:
    • 0 or 1.









Primary Scales of Measurement




to Runners

OrdinalRank Order

of Winners


Rating on a

0 to 10 Scale

Ratio Time to Finish, in












A Classification of Scaling Techniques

Scaling Techniques



Comparative Scales

Continuous Rating Scales

Itemized Rating Scales

Paired Comparison

Rank Order

Constant Sum

Q-Sort and Other Procedures

Semantic Differential



attitude scales
Attitude Scales
  • Scaling Defined:
    • The term scaling refers to procedures for attempting to determine quantitative measures of subjective and sometimes abstract concepts. It is defined as a procedure for the assignment of numbers to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question.
unidimensional and multidimensional scaling
Unidimensional and Multidimensional Scaling

Unidimensional Scaling

Multidimensional Scaling

Procedures designed to measure several dimensions of a respondent or object

Procedures designed to measure only one attribute of a respondent or object

different type of scales
Different Type of Scales
  • Graphic Rating Scale:
    • Present respondents with a graphic continuum typically anchored by two extremes.
  • Itemized Rating Scale:
    • Itemized rating scales are very similar to graphic rating scales, except that respondents must select from a limited number of ordered categories rather than placing a check mark on a continuous scale.
  • Rank-Order Scale:
    • Itemized and graphic scales are non-comparative because the respondent makes a judgment without reference to another object, concept, or person. Rank-order scales, on the other hand, are comparative because the respondent is asked to judge one item against another.
different type of scales cont
Different Type of Scales (cont.)
  • Q-Sorting:
    • Q-Sorting is basically a sophisticated form of rank ordering. A set of objects - verbal statements, slogans, product features, potential customer services, and so forth - is given to an individual to sort into piles according to specific rating categories.
  • Paired Comparison:
    • Paired comparison scales ask a respondent to pick one of two objects from a set based upon some stated criteria.
different type of scales cont1
Different Type of Scales (cont.)
  • Constant Sum Scales:
    • Constant sum scales are used more often by market researchers than paired comparisons because the long list of paired items is avoided.
    • This technique requires the respondent to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes based on their importance to the persons.
different type of scales cont2
Different Type of Scales (cont.)
  • Semantic Differential Scale:
    • The construction of the semantic differential scale begins with the determination of a concept to be rated. The researcher selects dichotomous pairs of words or phrases that could be used to describe the concept. Respondents then rate the concept on a scale. The mean of these responses for each pair of adjectives is computed and plotted as a “profile” or image.
  • Stapel Scale:
    • The Stapel scale is a modification of the semantic differential. A single adjective is placed at the center of the scale. Typically it is designed as a 10-point scale ranging from +5 to -5. The technique is designed to measure both the direction and intensity of attitudes simultaneously.
different type of scales cont3
Different Type of Scales (cont.)
  • Likert Scale:
    • The Likert scale consists of a series of statements that express either a favorable or an unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study.
  • Purchase Intent Scale:
    • Scale designed to measure the likelihood that a potential customer will purchase a product or service.
some basic considerations when selecting a scale
Some Basic Considerations When Selecting a Scale

Selecting a Rating, Ranking, Sorting, or Purchase Intent Scale

Odd or Even Number of Scale Categories

Number of Categories

Forced Versus Non-forced Choice

Balanced Versus Non-balanced Alternatives

approaches to identifying determinant attitudes
Approaches to Identifying Determinant Attitudes







Obtaining Shampoo Preferences Using Paired Comparisons

Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of shampoo brands. For each pair, please indicate which one of the two brands of shampoo you would prefer for personal use. Recording Form:

aA 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over the brand in the corresponding row. A 0 means that the row brand was preferred over the column brand. bThe number of times a brand was preferred is obtained by summing the 1s in each column.


Paired Comparison Scaling

The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison. The consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one with the most appealing taste. The test is done in private and a minimum of 1,000 responses is considered an adequate sample. A blind taste test for a soft drink, where imagery, self-perception and brand reputation are very important factors in the consumer’s purchasing decision, may not be a good indicator of performance in the marketplace. The introduction of New Coke illustrates this point. New Coke was heavily favored in blind paired comparison taste tests, but its introduction was less than successful, because image plays a major role in the purchase of Coke.

A paired comparison taste test


Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling

Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. Then find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10.

No two brands should receive the same rank number.

The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. There is no right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.


Brand Rank Order

1. Crest _________

2. Colgate _________

3. Aim _________

4. Gleem _________

5. Macleans _________

6. Ultra Brite _________

7. Close Up _________

8. Pepsodent _________

9. Plus White _________

10. Stripe _________


Importance of Toilet Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale


On the next slide are eight attributes of bathing soaps. Please allocate 100 points among the attributes so that your allocation reflects the relative importance you attach to each attribute. The more points an attribute receives, the more important the attribute is. If an attribute is not at all important, assign it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it should receive twice as many points.


Average Responses of Three Segments Attribute Segment I Segment II Segment III

1. Mildness

2. Lather

3. Shrinkage

4. Price

5. Fragrance

6. Packaging

7. Moisturizing

8. Cleaning Power



A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self- Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts

1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate

2) Excitable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm

3) Uncomfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable

4) Dominating :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive

5) Thrifty :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent

6) Pleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant

7) Contemporary :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete

8) Organized :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unorganized

9) Rational :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional

10) Youthful :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Mature

11) Formal :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Informal

12) Orthodox :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Liberal

13) Complex :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Simple

14) Colorless :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Colorful

15) Modest :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Vain


Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

Jovan Musk for Men isJovan Musk for Men isExtremely good Extremely good Very good Very good Good GoodBad Somewhat good

Very bad Bad Extremely badVery bad

Balanced Scale

Unbalanced Scale


Rating Scale Configurations

A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the gentleness of Cheer detergent. Some examples include: Cheer detergent is: 1) Very harsh --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Very gentle

2) Very harsh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very gentle

3) . Very harsh


. Neither harsh nor gentle


. Very gentle 4) ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Very Somewhat Neither harsh Somewhat Gentle Very

harsh Harsh harsh nor gentle gentle gentle


Very Neither harsh Very

harsh nor gentle gentle










Some Unique Rating Scale Configurations

Thermometer ScaleInstructions:Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is.


Smiling Face Scale Instructions:Please point to the face that shows how much you like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5.


1 2 3 4 5

Like very much

100 75 50 25 0

Dislike very much


Summary of Itemized Scale Decisions

Table 9.2

1) Number of Categories Although there is no single, optimal number, traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories2) Balanced vs. unbalanced In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data3) Odd/ even no. of categories If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible from at least some of the respondents, an odd number of categories should be used4)Forced vs. non-forced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of the data may be improved by a non-forced scale5) Verbal description An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as


6) Physical formA number of options should be tried and the best selected


Reliability of Measurements

Scale Evaluation




Internal Consistency

Test/ Retest

Alternative Forms








Potential Sources of Error on Measurement

1) Other relatively stable characteristics of the individual that influence the test score, such as intelligence, social desirability, and education.

2) Short-term or transient personal factors, such as health, emotions, fatigue.

3) Situational factors, such as the presence of other people, noise, and distractions.

4) Sampling of items included in the scale: addition, deletion, or changes in the scale items.

5) Lack of clarity of the scale, including the instructions or the items themselves.

6) Mechanical factors, such as poor printing, overcrowding items in the questionnaire, and poor design.

7) Administration of the scale, such as differences among interviewers.

8) Analysis factors, such as differences in scoring and statistical analysis.