karst initiatives storm water management in berkeley county n.
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Karst Initiatives/Storm Water Management in Berkeley County. Brian Hopkins, Ph.D., P.E. Berkeley County Engineering Department. Issues for stormwater management. The Water Balance Water Quantity Control Water Quality Control Karst

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Karst Initiatives/Storm Water Management in Berkeley County

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karst initiatives storm water management in berkeley county

Karst Initiatives/Storm Water Management in Berkeley County

Brian Hopkins, Ph.D., P.E.

Berkeley County Engineering Department

issues for stormwater management
Issues for stormwater management
  • The Water Balance
  • Water Quantity Control
  • Water Quality Control
  • Karst
    • Maintaining water balance as impervious covers the Karst features and other recharge receptors
    • Good quality recharge
    • Structural issues
  • Nuisances Issues
measures and ordinance based on wv dep us epa center for watershed protection guidelines
Measures and Ordinance based on WV DEP/US EPA/Center For Watershed Protection Guidelines
  • Water Quality Volume( WQv) (0.9” in. Precipitation)
    • Capture and TREAT 90% of average rainfall (0.9” rainfall)
  • Recharge Volume (Rev)
    • Maintain dry weather hydrology
    • Based upon the USDA hydrologic soil groups
  • Channel Protection Volume (Cpv)
    • Protection from erosive events caused by bankful flows due to urbanization
  • Overbank Flood Protection (Qp25)
    • Protect infrastructure from flooding from increased PEAK flows
    • zero discharge of 10 yr event in flood hazard areas
  • Extreme Flood Protection (Qf)
    • Protect infrastructure from flooding during extreme flood events
    • Restrict development in flood plains
water quantity control
Water Quantity Control
  • Channel Protection Volume – detention of 1 yr event over 24 hours – lower peak discharges and provides a buffering effect
  • Over Bank Protection Volume - Manage the 25 yr storm peak flow rates to pre-existing peak discharge conditions – not volume
  • Extreme Flood Event – Safely pass the 100 yr event
  • Flood prone areas – additional storage required – zero discharge of the 10 yr event
  • Down stream analysis required
  • Goal is to protect surface and sub surface aquatic systems.
  • Reduction of pollutants.
  • TREATMENT through BMP’s – (Water Quality Volume)
    • Filtering
    • Chemical processes (oxidation) and adsorption
    • Biological processing – microbes, plants, etc.
    • Plants – filter, uptake, and provide substrate.
    • Residence time for treatment.
effective swm practices

Micro-pool ED pond

Wet Pond

Wet ED pond

Pocket pond


Shallow Marsh

ED wetland

Pond/marsh system

Pocket Wetland


Contech Storm Filter



Sand filter




Organic Filter/Bioretention


Infiltration trench

Infiltration basin

Open Channels

Dry/Wet Swales

Effective SWM Practices
  • Discrete vs. Diffuse Recharge:
    • Treatment required for pure groundwater
  • Maintain a Water Balance
  • Exfiltration or Recharge Augmentation:
    • More impervious and more abstraction means less ground water in general thus methodology to make up for what is lost is required.
  • Understanding the dynamics of recharge:
    • Studies, field investigations, and modeling required to understand total implications
  • Ponded Water SWM and Mosquito abatement
    • Pretreatment – remove nutrient and organics loadings
    • Small, Deep pools – “micro pools” promote mixing, reduce stagnation, provide habitat for predators and inhibit invasive emergent vegetation
    • Predators in properly designed facility
      • Mosquito fish, dragon flies, aquatic beetles, and amphibians.
    • Fluctuating water surface elevation
    • Vegetation - Some types of vegetation help with mosquito control, while others exacerbate mosquito problems
      • Spatterdock, Arrowhead, etc. recommended
    • Chemical - Mosquito dunk and other treatments in maintenance schedules
  • Flexibility - Other filtering options (bioretention, sand filters, channels, etc. do not include standing water (designed for 48 hour drain down time)
  • More geotechnical testing requirements. Requirements of “Geotechnical methods for Karst feasibility testing” specifically added to SWM Ordinance
    • Karst study, borings, geophysical investigations
    • Monitoring systems, Maintenance and repair of sinkholes
  • Recommendations for providing Phase I environmental assessments and phase II where required prior to site plan approval
  • Increased field inspections at review time and coordination with WV DEP on Karst areas and features
initiatives continued
Initiatives Continued
  • Comprehensive plan for county and zoning to proposed to preserve recharge zones and limit development in more sensitive areas
  • County wide comprehensive topographic data
  • Potential for Master SWM Plan – Storm Water Utility being planned
  • LID options - 2 acre lots, 18’ pavement open street sections
future goals
  • Continued Identification and Studies of Karst Features within the county
  • Computer and GIS based stormwater quantity and/or quality models
  • Water quality testing
  • WVDEP Storm Water Management – Ground Water Protection Plan Guidance Document
  • 2000 MD SWM Design Manual Vol. I&II– MD DEP, Center for Watershed Protection, et.al.
  • USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Maryland Conservation Practice Standard Pond Code 378 (January 2000)
  • “Managing Mosquitoes in Stormwater Treatment Devices” 2004, University of California, Department of agriculture and natural resources.
  • HydroGIS ’96: Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management.
  • Brown, W. and T. Schueler, 1997. National Pollutant Removal Performance Database for Stormwater BMPs. Center for Watershed Protection. Chesapeake Research Consortium.
  • Meyer, S.P., Salem, T.H., and Labadie, J.W. (1993) Geographic Information Systems in Urban Storm-Water Management, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 119 (2): 206-228.
  • Chesapeake Bay Program
  • Recommendations for Refinement of a Spatially Representative Non-tidal Water Quality Monitoring Network for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed August 2005, Report of the Task Force on Non-tidal Water Quality Monitoring Network Design Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee, STAC Publication 05-006