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Nutrition. 0. Why do we need to eat?. What do we need to eat?. What happens to food we eat?. Nutrition. 0. Why do we need to eat?. energy. calories. building blocks. macronutrients. micronutrients. Macronutrients. 0. carbohydrates. lipids (fats). proteins. Micronutrients.

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Nutrition


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slide1

Nutrition

0

Why do we need to eat?

What do we need to eat?

What happens to food we eat?

slide2

Nutrition

0

Why do we need to eat?

energy

calories

building blocks

macronutrients

micronutrients

slide3

Macronutrients

0

carbohydrates

lipids (fats)

proteins

Micronutrients

vitamins, minerals

slide4

0

Carbohydrates

starches and sugars

most calories for most people

wheat, rice, oats, corn,…

Contain:

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Cn(H2O)n

slide5

0

Carbohydrates

building blocks are called:

monosaccharides

aka., simple sugars

e.g., glucose, fructose

slide7

0

Carbohydrates

Put two -saccharides together:

disaccharide

e.g., lactose, sucrose, maltose

slide8

0

Carbohydrates

Put many -saccharides together:

glucose polysaccharides

cellulose

starch

glycogen

slide9

0

Carbohydrates

cellulose

plant, unbranched

starch

plant, branched

glycogen

animal, branched

All made from glucose

slide10

glucose + O2 H20 + CO2 + ATP

0

Why do we need glucose ?

ingestive heterotrophs

cellular respiration

energy

slide11

Macronutrients

0

carbohydrates

lipids

slide12

0

lipids (fats, oils, steroids)

molecules that do not mix with water

made of hydrocarbon chains

non-polar

slide13

-

O

+

H

H

+

0

water is polar

unequally shared electrons

slide14

0

Some other molecules are “polar” and will mix well with water:

hydrophilic

Some molecules are not polar (non-polar) and don’t mix well with water:

hydrophobic

slide15

0

Some lipids are made from fatty acids:

slide17

0

Some lipids are made from fatty acids:

fats and oils

slide19

0

Some lipids are made from fatty acids:

fats and oils

Some are made from cholesterol:

slide21

0

Some lipids are made from fatty acids:

fats and oils

Some are made from cholesterol:

steroids

slide22

0

cell membranes are made of:

phospholipids

slide24

0

cell membranes are made of:

bilayer

phospholipids

slide26

0

cell membranes are made of:

bilayer

phopholipids

cholesterol

slide28

0

cell membranes are made of:

bilayer

phopholipids

cholesterol

proteins

slide29

Macronutrients

0

carbohydrates

lipids (fats)

proteins

slide30

0

Proteins:

building blocks are called:

amino acids (20)

e.g., glycine, valine

(8 are essential)

slide32

0

Proteins:

Functions:

structure

collagen, keratin

transport

through membrane

slide34

0

Proteins:

Functions:

structure

collagen, keratin

transport

through membrane

protection

antibodies

enzymes

DNA Polymerase

slide36

0

Fiber

carbohydrate (cellulose)

not a source of calories

helps “move” stuff through gut

lower blood cholesterol

slide37

0

Micronutrients

Vitamins (table 10.2)

slide38

0

Micronutrients

Vitamins (table 10.2)

too much (bottom pp. 336 and 338)

too little

diseases

slide39

0

diseases

beri-beri

thiamine

a vital amine

vitamin

slide40

0

diseases

beri-beri

thiamine (B1)

scurvy

C

D

rickets

slide41

0

Micronutrients

Vitamins

Minerals

Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, iron, etc.

slide42

0

“vegetarian” vs. omnivore

meat-avoiders

meat-eaters

plants material are good sources for most nutrients except:

balance of amino acids

vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

slide43

0

REVIEW

Chapter 10 Nutrition

A. Human nutritional requirements

  • Macronutrients

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

  • Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

B. Digestive system

  • Anatomy and chemistry
  • absorbing nutrients
  • Cellular respiration
slide44

0

Digestion

breakdown food using enzymes

chemical

vs

mechanical

physically break food into smaller pieces

slide45

0

Digestion

Tube from mouth to anus

slide48

Chemical reactions:

0

enzyme

reactants

products

slide49

Protein digestion:

0

stomach

(stomach)

pepsin

protein

peptides

slide50

Protein digestion:

0

small intestine

(pancreas)

trypsin

protein

peptides

(small intestine)

peptidase

peptides

amino acids

blood

slide51

Absorption

0

from “gut” into body

some things diffuse

concentration gradient

Fig. 10-11a

slide52

Absorption

0

from “gut” into body

some things are transported

facilitated transport

Fig. 10-11b

slide53

Absorption

0

from “gut” into body

some things are transported

active transport

Fig. 10-11c

slide54

Absorption

0

from “gut” into body

some large particles are transported

Fig. 10-11d

endocytosis

(exocytosis)

slide55

0

Chapter 10 Nutrition

A. Human nutritional requirements

  • Macronutrients

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

  • Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

B. Digestive system

  • Anatomy and chemistry
  • absorbing nutrients
  • Cellular respiration
slide56

Cellular respiration (includes Kreb’s cycle):

Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP (energy)

0

Production of energy

Remember cellular respiration?

slide57

0

Production of energy

cellular respiration

three subpathways

glycolysis

Kreb’s cycle

Electron transport chain

slide59

Glycolysis split glucose in half

pyruvate gets converted to acetyl-CoA

slide61

0

Glycolysis

in cytoplasm

Kreb’s cycle

in mitochondria

slide63

0

Glycolysis

in cytoplasm

Kreb’s cycle

in mitochondria

Electron transport chain

in mitochondria

slide65

+

+

+

O2

CO2

ATP

H2O

Glucose

Cellular respiration

(energy)

three subpathways

glycolysis

use glucose

Kreb’s cycle

make CO2

use O2

Electron transport chain

make H2O

make ATP

slide66

0

Chapter 10 Nutrition

A. Human nutritional requirements

  • Macronutrients

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

  • Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

B. Digestive system

  • Anatomy and chemistry
  • absorbing nutrients
  • Cellular respiration
slide67

0

Chapter 10 Nutrition

C. Circulatory system

  • Anatomy
  • distributing nutrients
  • Cardiovascular disease

D. Malnutrition and Poor health

slide68

0

Blood

Circulatory system

Fluid

(plasma; water, protein, ions, etc.)

Cells:

red blood cells

transport O2

white blood cells

immune system

platlets

blood clotting

slide69

0

Vessels

Circulatory system

arteries

carry blood from heart

carry blood to heart

veins

exchange of materials

capillaries

slide71

0

Heart

Circulatory system

4 chambers

receive blood

R + L atria

pump blood

R + L ventricles

4 valves

2 AV valves

2 semilunar valves

slide73

0

Two circuits

Circulatory system

systemic

O2-rich blood from left ventricle

out to the systems of the body

pulmonary

O2-poor blood from the right venticle

to lungs to exchange gases

figure 10 14
Figure 10.14

CO2

O2

O2

CO2

0

internal

respiration

lungs(air)

external

respiration

internal

respiration

cells

slide75

0

Aside on chapter 14 (respiration)

slide77

0

internal vs. external respiration

Where do they occur ?

What happens there ?

slide78

0

alveolus

cells/tissues

air

      • high O2
  • low CO2

low O2

high CO2

low O2

high CO2

high O2

low CO2

low O2

high CO2

high O2

low CO2

internal

respiration

external

respiration

slide79

0

Back to chapter 10 (and the heart)

slide80

0

Heart

Circulatory system

Beats about 1/second

Signal to beat comes from within

pacemaker

Has its own blood vessels

coronary vessels

slide81

0

Heart and/or vessels

Cardiovascular Disease

number one cause of death/year

Risk factors:

Behavior:

gender

genetics

hypertension

smoking

diet (bad)

exercise (lack of)

stress

slide82

0

epidemiology

study of disease factors in large populations

Austrailia

New Zealand

USA

high incidence of CV disease

high meat intake

(saturated fats)

lower incidence of CV disease

Mediterranean countries

olive oil

(unsaturated fats)

slide83

0

low consumption of saturated fats

lower incidence of CV disease

Japan

higher consumption of saturated fats

higher incidence of CV disease

Japanese in Hawaii or CA

slide84

0

These studies indicate that diet (fats) is more of a factor than genetics (heredity)

slide85

0

Atherosclerosis

Fat deposits in walls of blood vessels

contribute to:

hypertension heart attacks

slide87

0

Lipid transport

Lipids-not soluble in H2O

Blood is mostly H2O

Carrier proteins in blood

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

slide88

0

Lipid transport

Lipids-not soluble in H2O

Blood is mostly H2O

Carrier proteins in blood

HDL

carry cholesterol from tissue

carry cholesterol to tissue

LDL

slide89

0

Lipid transport

Lipids-not soluble in H2O

Blood is mostly H2O

Carrier proteins in blood

(1)

HDL

“good”

ratio

(4)

“bad”

LDL

slide90

0

“bad nutrition”

Malnutrition

poverty

war

eating disorders

slide91

0

Malnutrition

Industrialized nations

obesity

too many calories

too much high-fat food

BALANCE

exercise

+

diet

increase calories used

reduce calorie

intake

slide92

0

Malnutrition

Industrialized nations

obesity

anorexia nervosa

slide93

0

“When she weighed 65 kg (140 pounds), Melanie thought of herself as fat and ugly. Her menstrual periods stopped when her weight dropped to 45 kg (100 pounds). Now that she weighs 40 kg (90 pounds), all her friends tell her she is too skinny, but she is sure they are wrong because she still thinks of herself as chubby. She wants to lose even more weight. Melanie has an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. Her body is not getting the nutrition it needs. She could die the the situation remains untreated.” (BT3, pg. 326)

slide95

0

Malnutrition

Industrialized nations

obesity

anorexia nervosa

bulimia

slide96

[

]

weight/height2

pounds/inches2 x 703.7

0

BMI body mass index

weight/height2

kg/m2

>=25 overweight

>=30 obese

slide97

0

Malnutrition

worldwide:

starvation

too many people

crop failure

political struggle

slide98

0

Chapter 10 Nutrition

A. Human nutritional requirements

  • Macronutrients

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

  • Micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

B. Digestive system

  • Anatomy and chemistry
  • absorbing nutrients
  • Cellular respiration
slide99

0

Chapter 10 Nutrition

C. Circulatory system respiration

  • Anatomy chapter 14
  • distributing nutrients
  • Cardiovascular disease

D. Malnutrition and Poor health