EARLY FOUNDATIONS Magna Carta: (Great Charter) Written in 1215, limited the power of the King -Sets up foundation for limited government- government must follow the law
Enlightenment Philosophers • John Locke: Natural Rights, Social Contract • Voltaire: Freedom of Speech, and Separation of Church and State • Montesquieu: Separation of Powers • Rousseau: Egalitarianism
Ideas of the enlightenment • Social contract theory: says that government comes from the consent of the governed. • People agree to have a government as long as it does not violate their rights and freedoms. In return they agreed to follow the law of the contract…
Ideas continued • Natural rights: Rights that are so basic that they cannot be taken away. (you are born with them) • -John Locke- Life, LIBERTY ,AND PROPERTY • -OUR VERSION- LIFE LIBERTY AND THE PERSUIT OF HAPPIENESS
More ideas • Egalitarianism: • The spread of equality • This is the thought that all men are created equal. The enlightenment thinkers used this concept to mold the representative governments in which the government comes from the consent of the governed. • Which philosopher promoted this idea?
Mayflower compact • Social contract of the Pilgrims. Created in 1620 • Became the foundation of law at the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts
House of Burgesses • Established in Jamestown, VA in the 1600’s • The first representative governing body in the New World. • What is significant about Jamestown?
Navigation Acts • Passed in the 1660, restricted the trade of goods to anyone other than England. This created a FAVERABLE BALANCE OF TRADE for England. • England is Exporting (sell) more goods than it is importing (buy) • What economic philosophy helped keep a favorable balance of trade for England?
French & Indian War • War between the British and French over control of the colonies • Between 1754 & 1763, the British government started taxing the colonists to help pay for the war. • Spawned a period of Salutary Neglect between England and the Colonies • England was so concerned with the war that they left the colonies alone to govern themselves. They did not try to regain control until after the war was over.
Proclamation of 1763 • British passed this statement that prohibited Colonists from moving West of the Appalachian Mountains. • Red line is proclamation line
Stamp Act • Passed in 1765 • First Act passed against the colonies • Placed a tax on ALL materials printed on paper (newspapers, pamphlets, cards etc.) • All printed matter had to have a special stamp on it to show the tax had been paid. • In response to this tax, many colonists cried for “no taxation without representation”
Boston Massacre Background1770 • By the late 1700’s the British government was very alarmed by colonial protests. • Britain sent regiments of soldiers to keep order. • Colonists provoked a British regiment, and they killed five colonists. • As word spread through the colonies, it became known as the Boston Massacre, a violent confrontation between British soldiers and colonists.
Protest against Britain • Boston Tea Party in 1773 • Members of Sons of liberty disguised as American Indians boarded British ships in Boston and dumped their tea in the harbor to protest the tea tax. • What is a Protest? What are some different types of protest?
British response to Boston Tea Party • Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts): • Passed to punish the colonists for the Boston tea party. • Made colonists pay back the lost tea • Implemented the quartering Act • Closed the Boston harbour • Stopped town meetings.
Quartering act • Established in 1765 • Under this act, if asked, colonists were required by law to provide temporary housing and food to British soldiers. • The colonists considered this an unwanted intrusion of their privacy
Declaration of Independence • Signed July 4, 1776 by second continental congress • Explained why the American Colonies were separating from Great Britain • Listed many abuses the colonies suffered under the British king John Hancock of Massachusetts was the first to put his name down. He did it with a big, bold signature, "so the king doesn't have to put his glasses on," he said. Fifty-six men signed their names on the Declaration of Independence.
4 parts to the Declaration of Independence 1. Preamble (purpose) Introduction Explanation of Separation from England 2. Declaration of Rights General theories of Government People are born with Natural Rights Origin of government was a social contract 3. Grievances **Largest Section Charges against King George III 4. Declaration of Independence Goal was to preserve peace, but forced towards independence
Other Causes of the American Revolution • Common Sense- Written by Thomas Paine arguing for independence. • Writs of Assistance- Search warrants that allowed soldiers to search whatever, whenever they wanted • First continental congress- Appealed to the King about the taxation and lack of representation • Second continental congress- drafted the declaration of independence.
Thomas Jefferson knew just what to say, and he said it in a way that inspired people all over the world. "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed".
ASSIGNMENT • Create a timeline • Must include important documents, ideas, Acts and people • Use as many pictures and creative ideas as possible to represent ideas in your timeline. • How can you make your timeline original and different from what we think of as a timeline? • Must be in order (chronologically) start at 1215 – 1776 (what is everything that falls in between?) • You can use your notes, book etc.