Most Formative Assessment Webinar. Bill Conrad and Dan Mason Assessment and Accountability Department 408-453-4332 firstname.lastname@example.org Dan_mason@sccoe.org . Webinar Logistics. Please put your phone on mute until you want to speak.
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How do we measure whether all of the students in our classrooms achieve the intended learning targets while instruction occurs?
How do we use the assessment information to diagnose whole class, small group, and/or individual student learning needs and then intervene to support those learning needs?
How do we monitor how well our intervention supported student learning?
Grade-level team developed common assessments
Screening, diagnostic, ongoing monitoring
Cognitive Labs with Diagnostic Distractors
California Standards Test (CST)
California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE)
SAT College Entrance Exam
California English Language Development Test (CELDT)
Minute to Minute Classroom Assessments
Whiteboard responses to key questions
Teacher/Student and Student/Student Questions in Class
Teacher developed assessments for learning
Teacher developed quizzes and curriculum based assessments
District-developed Mid-Year Benchmark Assessments
Teacher developed End of Unit Assessments
Definition: Most formative assessments are closest to instruction. They take place within the actual instructional cycle and provide students and teachers with immediate feedback about the degree to which all students are achieving the instructional targets. Results from these assessments can be used to address student learning needs quickly.
Definition: More summative assessments are used at the end of a longer instructional cycle of 6-8 weeks and are meant to measure student achievement of learning targets after the student has had many opportunities to achieve and demonstrate mastery of the targets.
Definition: More formative assessments are used after a short instructional cycle of 1-4 weeks. They provide students and teachers with feedback about student learning needs aligned to instructional targets. Results from these assessments can be used to address student learning needs in an ongoing way.
Definition: Most summative assessments are usually used at the end of a semester or at the end of the year. Results can be used to make key decisions for students. Results are also used to inform the success of the adults in helping students achieve key learning standards.
Based on your review of the Assessment Continuum, definitions, and examples, work individually and then in pairs to answer and discuss the following questions.
What are the purposes of the assessments within the Assessment Continuum? How are they similar? How are they different?
How are the audiences for the assessments within the Assessment Continuum similar and different?
Can we expect one Assessment type to serve multiple purposes and audiences? Please discuss.
Formative assessment occurs while knowledge is being learned. Summative assessment occurs at the end of a learning episode – for example, at the end of a course. (McMillan, 2000)
Formative assessments are interactive and used primarily to form or alter an ongoing process or activity. In contrast, assessments that come at the end of a process or activity, when it is difficult to alter or rectify what has already occurred, are called summative assessments. (Airasian, 1994)
Formative assessments are all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by students which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they engage. (Black and Wiliam, 1998)
Based on your review of the Assessment for (Formative) and the Assessment of (Summative) graphic, please work with an elbow partner to discuss the following questions.
How are the foci of Formative and Summative Assessments similar? Different?
Which type of assessment contributes most directly to building student capacity to learn? What are some examples from your practice in using these kinds of assessments?
Do summative assessments play a role in informing the quality of the system used to support student learning? Please describe how your system uses these types of assessment.
Based on your review of the model for formative and summative assessments, discuss the questions below with a table partner.
Describe whether you support or do not support the idea of using at least 3 un-graded formative assessments for every summative assessment that is administered to students.
How do you think that un-graded formative assessments can contribute to improved gains in student learning?
Can the summative assessments in the model provide any formative assessment value for students? Please describe.
The most important single factor influencing student learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.
-Ausubel, Novak, and Hanesian (1978)
Most formative assessments are closest to instruction. They take place within the actual instructional cycle and provide students and teachers with immediate feedback about the degree to which all students are achieving the instructional targets. Results from these assessments can be used to address student learning needs quickly.
Please use the Venn Diagram Below to Identify similarities and differences between Formative (assessment for learning) and Summative Assessments (Assessments of Learning). Please consider purpose, audience, and use in your comparison.
The Book by Page Keeley called Science Formative Assessment contains 75 high quality examples of most formative assessments. You will be given a packet of 3 examples of Most Formative Assessments. Please read each example and then think about how you might use the most formative assessment within the context of your own teaching. Please discuss the answers to the questions on the subsequent slide with a table partner.
"Of all the civil rights for which the world has struggled and fought for 5,000 years, the right to learn is undoubtedly the most fundamental...The freedom to learn...had been bought by bitter sacrifice. And whatever we may think of the curtailment of other civil rights, we should fight to the last ditch to keep open the right to learn, the right to have examined in our schools not only what we believe, but what we do not believe; not only what our leaders say, but what the leaders of other groups and nations, and the leaders of other centuries have said. We must insist upon this to give our children the fairness of a start which will equip them with such an array of facts and such an attitude toward truth that they can have a real chance to judge what the world is and what its greater minds have thought it might be."
What role does Formative Assessment play in supporting student learning? How does formative assessment support the moral purpose so eloquently stated by W.E. B. Dubois?
To support every student in our school district as if he/she were our own child.
The word assessment comes from the Latin root word assesarewhich means to sit beside. Your team will receive a copy of a painting by Tanner called the Banjo. Please describe how this painting exhibits the elements of a quality formative assessment experience.
What the Research Says
Source: Marzano, 2006
There is abundant research that supports the use of Formative Assessment in supporting student learning. John Hattie conducted over 800 meta-Analyses on 138 on various influences on student learning. Providing formative evaluation to students was the third highest influence on student learning.
You will be provided with a reading from an important research student about the use of formative assessment. Please read these resources and discuss the questions on the following page with a table partner.
Source 1: Visible Learning by John Hattie. Pages 173- 178
Source 2: Classroom Assessment and Grading by Robert J. Marzano. Pages 1-11.
Source 3: Inside the Black Box by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. Pages 1-6.
After reading your Research Source Material, please form groups of 3 and discuss the following questions with your team members.
What are two or three key research findings that you found in the source?
Why are these findings important?
How can you use the findings in your practice of using formative assessments?
We can model the use of Most Formative Assessments by beginning with a Lesson Plan aligned to helping students demonstrate their understanding of learning targets that align with the Common Core Standards. We will begin this modeling process with a lesson entitled: Exponential Growth: How Long will it take for a bacterial colony to grow as big as the earth?
Review the complete lesson plan and then discuss the following questions with a table partner:
Are the learning targets important for students to know? Why?
What are the opportunities for most formative assessments?
How might you use most formative assessments to elicit student misconceptions?
Because the size of a bacterium is so small, and the size of the earth is so large, students will probably believe that it will take a very long time for a single bacterium through repeated divisions to become as big as the earth. You can use the most formative assessment of the Crumpled Paper throw to elicit student understanding of exponential growth by asking them to record on a small piece of paper, how long that they think it will take for a bacterium through repeated divisions to become as big as the earth and tell also say why. You can find how to carry out this Most Formative Assessment strategy on the following slide.
#7: COMMIT AND TOSS
Commit and Toss is an anonymous technique used to get a quick read on the different ideas students have in the class. It provides a safe, fun, and engaging way for all students to make their ideas known to the teacher and the class without individual students being identified as having “wild” or incorrect ideas. Students are given a question. After completing the question, students crumple their paper up into a ball and, upon a signal from the teacher, toss the paper balls around the room until the teacher tells them to stop and pick up or hold on to one paper. Students take the paper they end up with and share the ideas and thinking that are described on their “caught” paper, not their own ideas.
The weight of a bacteria is so small and the weight of the earth is so great that it would take forever for dividing bacterium to become as big as the earth
It will take millions of years for a bacterium to become as big as the earth by dividing because a bacterium is so small and the earth is so big!
Teacher Diagnosis: Students do not have a concept of the properties of exponential growth.
Intervention: Engage students in hands on and minds on activities that will help them visualize and conceptualize the properties of exponential growth. Students will use both physical models and Excel models of exponential growth.
In order to model, exponential growth, students will need to be able to represent large numbers using scientific notation. Students may exhibit the following error patterns in representing large numbers using scientific notation.
Scientific Notation! A negative on an exponent and a negative on a number…uhh? Are they the same?
Correct: 0.00036 = 3.6 x 10-4
-0.00036 = 3.6 x 10-4
36,000 = 3.6 x 104
-36,000 = 3.6 x 104
In order to find out if students have this error pattern in thinking, a teacher could develop a quick selected response question and embed the error pattern as a distractor in the problem.
Don’t forget: You can copy-paste this slide into other presentations, and move or resize the poll.
Please produce an answer frequency table using SChoolPlan that shows a 42% selection of letter B and a 40% selection of letter C.
The Exit Ticket is a Most Formative Assessment Tool to gauge how well students are achieving key learning targets.
How might you use this type of tool to measure student understanding of learning targets in your classroom?
Fixsen Model for Implementation supports a system that effectively combines Leadership, organizational supports, and staff competencies to ensure an effective implementation of a Most Formative Assessment Initiative.
School and District leaders work collaboratively to build the capacity of teachers to implement quality initiatives like the use of Most Formative Assessments within the Classroom. Leaders do this by focusing not only on the technical capacities of staff to effectively implement the initiative but also those transformational skills required to solve problems that arise that are not easily characterized or defined.
Please read the article called Implementation Drivers - Best Practices for Coaching by Karen Blasé et al. Please review the checklist for the implementation of quality coaching for the initiative and discuss the following questions with your table partner.
Does the document provide enough information to implement a Coaching system for the implementation of an innovation?
As a district leader, how would you modify this tool to monitor the implementation of the Most Formative Assessment Initiative?
Black, Paul and Wiliam, Dylan. 2001. Inside the Black Box. Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment. King’s College London School of Education.
Blasé, Karen. Et al. 2009. Implementation Drivers – Best Practices for Coaching. National Implementation Research Center.
Fixsen, Dean. et al. 2005. Implementation Research. A Synthesis of the Literature. University of South Florida.
Hattie, John. 2009. Visible Learning. A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. Routledge. New York. New York
Keeley, Page. 2008. Science Formative Assessments. Corwin Press. Thousand Oaks, California.
Marzano, Robert, J. 2006. Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work. ASCD. Alexandria, Virginia.