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Renewable energy from biomass in Estonia: current status and outlook. Andres Koppel , Katrin Heinsoo Estonian Agricultural University. Overview. 1. Background- why renewable energy in Estonia? 1.1. Estonian energy balance 1.2. Land resources

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renewable energy from biomass in estonia current status and outlook

Renewable energy from biomass in Estonia: current status and outlook

Andres Koppel, Katrin Heinsoo Estonian Agricultural University

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide2

Overview

1. Background- why renewable energy in Estonia?

1.1. Estonian energy balance

1.2. Land resources

2. Renewable energy in Estonian strategy documents

3. Existing competence

3.1. Estimation of biofuel potential

3.2. Energy crops. Short rotation forests (SRF)

Network of SRF test plantations

Productivity studies

Waste utilisation

Ongoing projects related to SRF

3.3. Technologies

3.4. Support systems and know-how development

4. Outlook

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide3

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia?1.1.Structure of primary energy production, import and export in Estonia (x 103TJ)Source: Statistical Office of Estonia

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide4

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia?1.1.Structure of energy production, import and export in Estonia(x 103TJ)

1. Energy production dropped rapidly and stabilised

2. Import decreased

3. Export is slowly growing

4. Production of renewables (fuelwood) increased 3 times

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide5

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia? 1.1.Structure of energy production, import and export in Estonia(x 103TJ)

5. Firewood export is growing fast, most of peat exported

6. Gas import growing

7. Petrol and diesel oil import growing

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide6

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia? 1.1.Structure of energy production, import and export in Estonia(x 103TJ)

Conclusions from the statistical data:

  • Domestic traditional renewable sources of energy almost exhausted
  • Prices of firewood and woodchips are rising fast

Forest resource?

Wood fuel incl. forest residues: potential will decrease almost twice by 2030 (Muiste et al, 2004)

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide7

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia? 1.1.Structure of energy production, import and export in Estonia(x 103TJ)

Current situation:

  • Possibility that recently reconstructed wood- fired- boilers will be converted to natural gas
  • Interest of heat producers to initiate the biomass energy programme

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide8
1. Why renewable energy in Estonia?1.2.Structure of agricultural land use in Estonia (th ha)Source: Statistical Office of Estonia
  • Rapid decline in arable land use: 611 th ha!
  • Exception: rapeseed (2004 - 50.4)

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

1 why renewable energy in estonia 1 2 structure of agricultural land use in estonia th ha

??

1. Why renewable energy in Estonia?1.2.Structure of agricultural land use in Estonia (th ha)
    • 1. How much abandoned?
  • MoA (2003): 442 th ha
  • Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (2005): 270 th ha
  • 2. More important – how to exploit?

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

1 why renewable energy in estonia how to exploit this resource
1. Why renewable energy in Estonia?How to exploit this resource?
  • 1. Let the nature rule!
  • Approx. 10-15% of abandoned areas - natural forestation
  • 2. Afforestation programmes
  • Approx. 700 ha of hybrid poplar established. Expertise exists
  • 3. Energy crops = Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production
  • Rapeseed (rapidly expanding – 2004 - 50 th ha)
  • Short rotation forests (experimental plots since 1993, first commercial plantations established in 2005) – extensive expertise exists, difficulties emerge for practical implementation (legal etc)
  • Other energy crops – ? Expertise almost missing

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

2 renewable energy in estonian strategy documents
2. Renewable energy in Estonianstrategy documents

Estonian Long-Term Energy Development Plan 2015

(adopted by Parliament 15.12.2004)

  • Stabilised energy consumption on the level of 2003
  • The share of renewable electricity should grow to 5.1% by 2010 (wind, co-generation)
  • Emphasis on renewable liquid biofuels, especially biodiesel
  • Solid biofuels? - weakly represented in the document
    • Statement, that the export is growing and therefore the resources of domestic biofuel are exhausted
    • For further development of biomass plantations economic calculations are needed

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

3 existing competence
3. Existing competence

1. Evaluation of the biofuel potential

2. Energy crops

3. Technologies

  • Combustion
  • Field machinery

4. Support system and development of know-how

  • Legislation
  • Organisational support
  • Economic support system
  • Steering

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

3 existing competence 3 1 evaluation of the biofuel potential

Need to develop energy crops

3. Existing competence3.1. Evaluation of the biofuel potential

Extensive expertise in biofuels potential analysis exists, especially in wood fuel potential:

Production of biomass fuels (2002) and their potential (TWh) in Estonia

Data from Muiste et al, 2004. Sustainable balance of biofuels supply-demand in Estonia, Proc 2nd World Conf and Tech Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Rome, vol 1, 568-571

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

3 existing competence 3 2 energy crops
3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops
  • Rapeseed production - common practice
  • Short rotation forests (SRF): relatively long- time and extensive expertise (experiments since 1993)
  • Hybrid poplars: expertise rapidly growing
  • Expertise in other perspective crops (reed canary grass, hemp etc) almost lacking
  • Totally lacking in crops for biogas production
  • Evaluation: expertise unevenly distributed

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide16

3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops

  • Productivity studies:
  • Fertilisation doubles growth. No good yield without nutrient supply!
  • Stable production over 3 rotation periods
  • Clone differences
  • Emphasis to diseases

Photo: July 2003, 2 months into 3rd rotation

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide17

3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops

Productivity studies: Saare plantation

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

waste utilisation municipal sludge disposal
Municipal sludge almost doubled shoot productivity

Sludge application did not cause nutrient leakage to groundwater

3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops

Waste utilisation: municipal sludge disposal

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide19
Kambja prototype, S. Estonia:

Wastewater produced by ca 1000 persons

9.1 ha Salix (+5.0 ha control)

1.6 ha Alnus + Populus

3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops

Septic

Pond

Biopond

SUMMER

WINTER

Vegetation filter Salix, Populus triploides,Alnus

Additional

bioponds

Additional

bioponds

River

Waste utilisation: Wastewater purification&energy production

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide20

3. Existing competence3.2. Energy crops

Ongoing international projects related to SRF in EAU

  • LIFE ENVIRONMENT demonstration project “Sustainable wastewater purification in Estonian small municipalities” with 3 Estonian partners.www.zbi.ee/life
  • EC 6FW CRAFT project “Monitoring and Control System for Wastewater irrigated Energy plantations” with partners from 5 countries.www.wacosys.info
  • EC 6FW collective research project “Solutions for the safe application of wastewater and sludge for high efficient biomass production in Short-Rotation-Plantations” with partners from 9 countries
  • EC 6 FW co-ordination action project “Integrated European Network for Biomass Co-firing” with partners from 19 countries.www.netbiocof.net

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide21

3. Existing competence3.3. Technologies

  • Solid biofuels: Weakin energy crop harvesting. Good in combustion technologies
  • Biogas: Good in landfill biogas utilisation, emerging in sludge biogas. Totally lacking in biogas from grasses/cereals

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide22

3. Existing competence3.4. Supporting and development systems

  • - Supporting systems
    • Legislative basis is not ready (farmer - do not start SRF today! Eg- energy forest is neither forest nor agricultural crop)
    • No support schemes exist
    • No extension services exist
  • - Development of know-how. No systematically organised applied research today

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

4 outlook
4. Outlook
  • There is need for renewable bioenergy
  • Resources are available
  • Know-how mostly exists, but is scattered

How to go further?

  • have a plan
  • have a leader
  • Estonian plan:
  • Feasibility study  state bioenergy program

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

slide24

4. OutlookFeasibility study “Analysis of the perspectives for Estonian bioenergy programme” (2005) commissioned by the Environmental Investment Centre

  • Analysis of legislative background (Estonian, EU, incl. support schemes, environmental constraints)
  • Results of the applied research: productivity, perspective cultures
  • Analysis of technologies (incl. production, combustion)
  • Economical feasibility calculation
  • Suggestion of methods for land resource evaluation
  • Suggestion of the organisational structure for the commercial production chain

Aims

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

4 outlook the next step s
4. OutlookThe next steps

Leader : MoA has to take

the lead and ….

allocate resources

How: From sporadic

to planned and organised

development

Organisational framework:

Estonian bioenergy

programme

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production

thank you
Thank you!

Estonian Agricultural University:www.eau.ee

More information:www.zbi.ee/life/

Andres Koppel:andres.koppel@eau.ee

Katrin Heinsoo:katrin.heinsoo@eau.ee

Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production