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Integrative Medicine . Nutritional Implications. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): .

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integrative medicine

Integrative Medicine

Nutritional Implications

complementary and alternative medicine cam
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM):
  • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): alternative, adjunctive health care practices: not presently an integral part of conventional medicine; includes botanical use, mind-body approaches, musculoskeletal manipulation, energy medicine, nutrition-diet interventions

Thomson in Krause, p. 470

cam therapies include
CAM Therapies Include
  • Alternative medical systems, such as naturopathy, traditional Chinese medicine, ayurveda, and homeopathy
  • Mind-body therapies, such as meditation, prayer, art or music therapy
  • Biologically based therapies such as herbs, whole foods diets, and supplementation
  • Manipulative therapies such as massage, chiropractic medicine, osteopathy, yoga
  • Whole medical systems based on energy therapies such as qi gong, magnetic therapy, and reiki
integrative medicine4
Integrative medicine
  • Integration of these approaches into conventional medicine; nutritional care is a primary therapy in this model
  • Focused on combined use of conventional and CAM approaches
  • Evidence-based
  • Includes wellness and prevention

Thomson in Krause, p. 471

national center for complementary and alternative medicine nccam
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

Part of the National Institutes of Health

—Investigates and evaluates alternative therapies and their effectiveness

theoretical basis of holistic therapies
Theoretical Basis of Holistic Therapies
  • Health as a vital, dynamic state; more than the absence of disease
  • The healing force of nature
  • Self-healing power of living things; organisms have inherent self-defense mechanisms against illness
  • Includes naturopathy, chiropractic, homeopathy, traditional Oriental medicine, acupuncture, phytotherapy
integrative therapies
Integrative Therapies
  • Naturopathy
  • Homeopathy
  • Traditional Chinese medicine
  • Acupuncture
  • Phytotherapy

Health is more than the absence of disease.

The body can heal itself.

naturopathy
Naturopathy
  • Practitioners diagnose and treat at the primary care level
  • Train in 4-year postgraduate institutions
  • Most states require licensure
  • Uses natural methods of healing (light, heat, air, water, and massage)
  • Training includes pathology, microbiology, physical and clinical diagnosis, pharmacognosy, hydrotherapy, physical therapy, nutrition,
  • Treatments include phytomedicines, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, minor surgery, mechanotherapy, nutrition, nutritional supplements, and natural forces
chiropractic concepts
Chiropractic Concepts
  • Body has the ability to heal itself; Practitioner’s role is to assist
  • The structure and condition of the body influences how well it functions
  • The mind-body relationship is important in maintaining health and promoting healing
  • Locate and eliminate subluxations, musculoskeletal problems that interfere with the body’s ability to maintain health
  • Primary therapy is manual manipulations, along with lifestyle
chiropractic practitioners
Chiropractic Practitioners
  • Do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery
  • Licensed and regulated in all 50 states and 30+ countries
  • Practitioners must graduate from 4-year accredited college of chiropractic and pass a nationally-administered exam
chiropractic
Chiropractic
  • The most widely-used of the complementary and alternative treatments, particularly for low back pain, neck pain, and headache
  • Effectiveness is being studied by the Consortial Center for Chiropractic Research, a consortium of chiropractic schools and universities, established by NCCAM
homeopathy
Homeopathy
  • Law of similars: Substances in large doses that produce symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure the same symptoms when administered in very dilute amounts
  • Remedies become potentized through repeated dilution and succussion (shaking)
homeopathy13
Homeopathy
  • Results of research on the effectiveness of homeopathy have been contradictory
  • Appears to have more than a placebo effect, but scientific basis unclear
  • Generally regarded as safe (many homeopathic remedies are so dilute that the healing substance is nondetectable by chemical means
traditional chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Based on the concept of body life force chi (Qi)
  • Forces that must be balanced

—Yin and yang and blood

  • Invisible energy circuits called meridians carry chi and blood throughout the body
nutrition in traditional chinese medicine
Nutrition in Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Components: Food as a means of obtaining nutrition, food as a tonic or medicine, fasting
  • Foods classified by taste (sour, bitter, sweet, spicy, salty) and property (cool, cold, warm, hot and plain)
  • Regulate yin, yang, chi, blood
acupuncture and moxibustion
Acupuncture and Moxibustion
  • Acupuncture: Use of thin needles, inserted into points on the meridians, stimulating the body’s energy or chi
  • Moxibustion: application of heat along meridian acupuncture points, affecting chi and blood, balancing substances and organs
  • Treat disharmony in the body
acupuncture as anesthesia
Acupuncture as Anesthesia
  • Has been used to produce regional anesthesia
  • Appears to act through needle stimulation, triggering the release of opioids
  • Research has been mixed
  • Has been shown to be efficacious in adult postop management, chemotherapy-induced nausea, postoperative dental pain
traditional chinese herbs
Traditional Chinese Herbs
  • Includes herbs and minerals as well as animal products
  • Pharmacopoeias published as early as the third century BC
  • Most medicinals include multiple substances
phytotherapy
Phytotherapy
  • Science of using plant-derived substances to treat and prevent illness
  • Botanicals: come as bulk herbs, tinctures, capsules and tablets; includes herbs and other plant materials
  • Sometimes the active ingredient has been identified; sometimes not
  • Have a long history of research and use in Europe
botanical formulations
Botanical Formulations
  • Teas: weak concentration prepared by steeping fresh/dried herbs for a few minutes in water
  • Infusions: more concentrated than teas; steeped for 15 minutes
  • Decoction: Most concentrated of beverages; botanical is boiled for 30-60 minutes
botanical formulations21
Botanical Formulations
  • Extracts: herbs are extracted with an organic solvent to dissolve the active components; concentrated form
  • Tincture: extract in which solvent is alcohol
  • Glycerite: extract in which the solvent is glycerol or mixture of glycerol, propylene glycol, and water; more suitable for children
botanical formulations22
Botanical Formulations
  • Capsules: Herbal material enclosed in a hard shell made from gelatin or cellulose
  • Tablets: herbal material is mixed with filler to form the hard tablet; may be coated or uncoated
  • Lozenges (troches): active components are released in the mouth when chewed or sucked
  • Soft gels: used to encase liquid extracts, such as omega-3 fatty acids or vitamin E
  • Essential oils: fragrant, volatile plant oils used for aromatherapy, bathing; not to be used internally unless specifically directed
american herbal products assoc botanical safety rating system
American Herbal Products Assoc Botanical Safety Rating System
  • Class 1: herbs that can be safely consumed when used appropriately
  • Class 2: herbs for which restrictions apply, e.g. for external use only, not to be used during pregnancy, nursing, etc
  • Class 3: herbs labeled “To be used only under the supervision of an expert qualified in the appropriate use of this substance.”
  • Class 4: insufficient data for classification
dietary supplement health and education act of 1994 dshea
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
  • Defined dietary supplements as “a product intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of these incredients
  • Reclassified botanicals as dietary supplements, distinct from food or drugs
dietary supplement health and education act of 1994 dshea25
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
  • Plant extracts, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, hormonal products available without prescription may carry “structure-function” claims
  • Cannot claim to prevent or cure specific conditions
  • Must display disclaimer, “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.”
required labeling of dietary supplements under dshea
Required Labeling of Dietary Supplements under DSHEA
  • Name (echinacea, for example)
  • Ingredient information
  • Disclaimer: "This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease."
  • Supplement Facts panel, which includes serving size, amount and active ingredient.
  • Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor.
dietary supplement claims
Dietary Supplement Claims
  • Health claim: describes the relationship between a substance and a disease condition; FDA does not approve, but must be notified
  • Qualified health claim: based on emerging scientific evidence; must be approved by FDA
  • Structure-function claim: most common; does not claim to prevent disease, but a physiological effect is noted, e.g. “increases blood flow to the heart.”
labeling under dshea
Allowed

This product helps to increase blood flow to the heart.

This product promotes urinary tract health

This product improves absent-mindedness.

This product reduces stress and frustration

Not Allowed

This product prevents heart disease

This product prevents urinary tract infections.

This product reduces risk of Alzheimer’s Disease.

This product improves depression.

Labeling Under DSHEA
regulation of dietary supplements
Regulation of Dietary Supplements
  • Dietary supplements are not subject to the same standards as prescription or over-the-counter drugs
  • Manufacturers do not have to prove their products are safe or effective before they put them on the market
  • FDA can pull supplements proven to be dangerous, but only after the fact; it is up to the FDA to make its case
regulation of dietary supplements medwatch
Regulation of Dietary Supplements: Medwatch
  • The FDA’s Medwatch system can be used to report possible adverse reactions to dietary supplements http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/report/hcp.htm
examples of fda warnings
Examples of FDA Warnings
  • January, 2004: FDA warns consumers not to feed their babies “Better than Formula Ultra Infant Immune Booster 117" being sold over the internet as a dietary supplement
  • February, 2002: Consumers warned to stop using the products PC SPES and SPES capsules because they contain undeclared prescription drug ingredients that could cause serious health effects
examples of fda warnings33
Examples of FDA Warnings
  • November, 2001: consumers warned to immediately stop use of LipoKinetix, a weight loss product; implicated in a number of serious liver injuries.
  • March, 2002: consumers advised of risk of severe liver injury associated with the use of kava-containing dietary supplements to ease stress and anxiety.
  • February, 2004: issues final rule forbidding sale of ephedra-containing weight loss products; associated with significant adverse health effects including heart attack and stroke
dietary supplement and nonprescription drug consumer protection act 12 06
Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act 12/06
  • Requires manufacturers and distributors of dietary supplements and OTC drugs to report all serious adverse events to FDA
  • Requires manufacturers to keep all adverse event records, serious and non-serious, for six years; allows FDA to inspect these records.
  • Sets a 15-day time limit for manufacturers to give FDA the serious reports they receive.
cautions regarding dietary supplements
Cautions Regarding Dietary Supplements
  • There may be a discrepancy between the ingredients on the label and what’s inside
  • This is especially true of herb mixtures, such as Chinese herbs
  • The dosage of the “active ingredient” in herbals can vary widely depending on the variety of plant, where it’s grown, climate, etc.
read the dietary supplement label and verify
Read the Dietary Supplement Label and Verify….
  • Complete botanical name of the product (make sure it is the right botanical)
  • The part of the plant used to make the product; it should be the part that contains the active components
  • The concentration of the botanical and if it is appropriate, neither too weak or two strong

Debusk, RM. A practical guide to herbal supplements for nutrition practitioners. Top Clin Nutr 16:53, 2001

read the dietary supplement label and verify38
Read the Dietary Supplement Label and Verify….
  • The daily dosage needed to obtain the desired effect
  • The list of ingredients used to identify fillers, potential allergens
  • Lot number
  • Expiration date
  • Recognized seal of approval (Good Housekeeping, USP, Consumerlab)
  • Compare prices: prices vary widely

Debusk, RM. A practical guide to herbal supplements for nutrition practitioners. Top Clin Nutr 16:53, 2001

evaluating dietary supplements
Evaluating Dietary Supplements
  • Obtain unbiased evaluative information from resources like Supplement Watch and Consumer Lab www.consumerlab.com
  • Encourage patients to purchase supplements from well-known manufacturers
consumerlab study of 20 multivitamins
ConsumerLab Study of 20 Multivitamins

Vitamins that failed:

  • The Vitamin Shoppe Multivitamins Especially for women: Contaminated with lead
  • — Hero Nutritionals Yummi Bears: Had twice the labeled amount of vitamin A
  • — Nature's Plus Especially Yours for Women: Took twice as long as allowed to disintegrate
  • — AARP Maturity Formula: Took nearly twice as long as allowed to disintegrate
  • — Eniva VIBE: Only 54 percent of claimed vitamin A
  • — Pet-Tabs Complete Daily Vitamin-Mineral Supplement for Dogs: Contained lead
        • Accessed at MSNBC http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16655168/
        • Released 1/2007
consumerlab study of 20 multivitamins41
ConsumerLab Study of 20 Multivitamins

Vitamins that passed:

  • Centrum Silver
  • Member's Mark Complete Multi
  • One A Day Women's
  • Flintstones Complete
      • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16655168/ January, 2007
tips for picking a multivitamin from cspi
Tips for Picking a Multivitamin from CSPI
  • Choose well-known mainstream brands by companies that have a lot at stake.
  • Buy from large, trusted retailers, not unknown sellers on the Internet.
  • Look on the bottle for a stamp from USP, NSF or ConsumerLab.com. While the stamp doesn't guarantee the product is safe and effective, it does indicate that the manufacturer has submitted the product for testing to show that it contains what is stated on the label.
  • Don’t spend a fortune on vitamins. Pricey products toting all sorts of "extras" aren't necessary and may be trouble.
          • Center for Science in the Public Interest accessed at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16655168/ 1/07
evaluating dietary supplements43
Evaluating Dietary Supplements

United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) Dietary Supplement Verification Program (DSVP)

  • Certification mark (USP®) indicates that the product contains the dietary supplement listed on the label in the stated amount and that the product is manufactured properly
  • Does not speak to the safety or efficacy of the ingredients, only to good manufacturing practices
cam providers mds dos
CAM Providers: MDs/DOs
  • Over 1/3 of medical schools offer instruction in alternative medicine
  • More than half of family physicians in the US regularly prescribe alternative treatments or have used themselves
cam providers rds
CAM Providers: RDs
  • Nutrition in Complementary Care DPG, a subunit of the American Dietetic Association http://www.complementarynutrition.org/
  • Some RDs are incorporating counseling about CAM into their practices
cam providers other
CAM Providers: Other
  • RNs
  • RPh
  • ND: naturopath provider
  • DC: chiropractor
  • OMD: oriental medical doctor
  • Accupuncturist
  • Massage Therapist
  • Hypnotherapist
  • Herbalist
tips for patients evaluating cam providers
Tips for Patients: Evaluating CAM Providers
  • Check for licensing, education, accreditation of provider
  • Check for complaints (BBB, Board of Health, Attorney General’s office, patient support groups)
  • Speak with the practitioner in person, evaluate facilities and neighbors
trends in use of cam by us adults 1997 2002
Trends in Use of CAM by US Adults 1997-2002
  • The number of Americans using CAM remained stable at 72 million
  • 50% ↑ in use of herbal supplements, from 12.1% in 1997 to 18.6% (38 million).
  • Yoga increased 40%, from 3.7% to 5.1% (10 million adults)

Tindle HA, Davis RB, Phillips RS, Eisenberg DM. Trends in the use of complementary and alternative medicine by US adults: 1997-2002. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine; 1; 1: 2005.

trends in use of cam by us adults 1997 200254
Trends in Use of CAM by US Adults 1997-2002
  • Use of CAM therapies including acupuncture, biofeedback, energy healing, hypnosis remained essentially unchanged
  • Use of homeopathy, high-dose vitamins, chiropractic, and massage therapy declined slightly
  • Increased use of herbal medicine practitioners among those who use herbs (5% to 15%)
commonly used botanicals
Echinacea

Garlic

Ginger

Gingko biloba

Ginseng

Hawthorn

Milk thistle

Saw palmetto

St. John’s wort

Valerian

Commonly Used Botanicals
echinacea
Echinacea
  • Source: Purple cornflower
  • Indication: Stop or moderate colds or flu
  • Action: Macrophages and their secretions
  • Cautions: Avoid if immune system is hampered and do not use continually
garlic
Garlic
  • Source: Garlic plant
  • Indication: Lower serum cholesterol and triglycerides
  • Action: Chewing or crushing activates several sulfur- containing compounds
  • Cautions: Allergies, GI symptoms, interaction with anticoagulant drugs
ginger
Ginger
  • Source: Root of ginger plant
  • Indication: For nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and motion sickness; anti-inflammatory
  • Action: Volatile oils in the rhizome, called gingerols; may act on serotonin receptors in the ileum
  • Cautions: Interaction with anti- coagulant, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering drugs
gingko biloba
Gingko Biloba
  • Source: Gingko tree
  • Indication: Improved blood circulation; used to treat age-related mental function decline r/t cerebrovascular insufficiency
  • Action: Flavone glycosides have antioxidant effect, inhibit platelet aggregation
  • Cautions: Class 2d botanical; may potentiate MAO inhibitors; GI complaints, headache, allergy
ginseng
Ginseng
  • Source: Ginseng plant (radish-like herb) root
  • Indication: General improvement from the steroidlike components
  • Action: Ginsenosides, enhanced immune function; studies mixed
  • Cautions: Class 2d botanicals; contraindicated in persons with hypertension; overstimulation, GI distress
hawthorn
Hawthorn
  • Source: Native European tree; leaves, blossoms, fruit
  • Indication: Improve blood flow in circulatory disorders
  • Action: Dilates coronary vessels; strengthens heart contractions and rate
  • Cautions: Class 1 botanical
saw palmetto
Saw Palmetto
  • Source: Palm tree
  • Indication: Reduce incidence of BPH
  • Action: Action unclear; research results mixed
  • Cautions: Contains phytoestrogens, could interfere with estrogen therapy, oral contraceptives, other phytohormone- containing herbs
st john s wort
St. John’s Wort
  • Source: Perennial herb
  • Indication: Mild to moderate depression
  • Action: Hypericin and hyperforin in flowering tops; reuptake of neurotransmitters
  • Cautions: Rated as 2d botanical; may potentiate pharmaceutical MAOIs; interact with other antidepressives; photosensitivity
valerian
Valerian
  • Source: Perennial herb; active element in roots and rhizomes
  • Indication: Minor tranquilizer and sleep aid; fewer side effects than medications
  • Action: Volatile oils (bornyl acetate and valerenic acid) mode of action GABA binding
  • Cautions: Class 1 botanical; abrupt withdrawal may precipitate symptoms
milk thistle
Milk Thistle
  • Source: Herb in daisy family; seeds are highest in silymarin
  • Indication: Hepatoprotective; used to treat liver damage in cirrhosis, hepatitis, fatty infiltration
  • Action: Silymarin stimulates protein synthesis, antioxidant; shown to be moderately effective
  • Cautions: Class 1 botanical; mild laxative effect; allergies
working with clients who use cam
Working with Clients who Use CAM
  • Most clients will not tell their allopathic (mainstream medicine) providers about CAM use, unless asked
  • Establish a rapport with clients
  • Be non-judgemental; assume role of coach
  • Ask clients to bring all prescription, OTC, and dietary supplements with them to their visit

Debusk RM. Integrative medicine and phytotherapy. In Krause, p. 491-492.

for each supplement
For Each Supplement
  • Ask client what he/she hopes to achieve by taking it
  • Discuss whether the formulation is appropriate to achieve the client’s health goals
  • Discuss whether dosage taken has been found to be safe and effective in clinical trials
  • Review quality of the particular preparation and how to evaluate

Debusk RM. Integrative medicine and phytotherapy. In Krause, p. 491-492.

for each supplement68
For Each Supplement
  • Discuss any known safety or contraindication concerns
  • Review potential or known interactions between each supplement and prescription or OTC preparations, other dietary supplements, and foods
  • Instruct client to use dosage commonly recommended and instructions for where to obtain credible information

Debusk RM. Integrative medicine and phytotherapy. In Krause, p. 491-492.

for each supplement69
For Each Supplement
  • Recommend a low starting dosage, even lower than that commonly recommended and evaluate response
  • Use this as an opportunity to teach consumers analytical skills that will be useful in managing their own health.

Debusk RM. Integrative medicine and phytotherapy. In Krause, p. 491-492.

working with clients who use cam70
Working with Clients Who Use CAM
  • It is the responsibility of health professionals to ask clients about use of CAM and to be familiar with commonly-used therapies
  • Nutrition professionals can take the same evidence-based approach to CAM as to any other therapy or medical intervention
links for integrative medicine information
Links for Integrative Medicine Information
  • Intellihealth Index of Herbal Medicines and Supplementshttp://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/8513/31402.html
  • Herb Med: An interactive electronic herb database. http://www.herbmed.org/
  • Rosenthal Center Botanical Medicine Information Resources (Columbia University)http://www.rosenthal.hs.columbia.edu/Botanicals.html
  • National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Therapyhttp://nccam.nih.gov/
summary
Summary
  • Identify use of herbs and botanicals.
  • Monitor for side effects.
  • Document for records.
  • Discuss with physician.