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Human Computer Interaction

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  1. Human Computer Interaction The Interaction – Chapter 3

  2. Contents • Introduction • Models of Interaction • Ergonomics • Interaction Styles • Interactivity • Experience, Engagement & Fun 10/12/2014 2 The Interaction

  3. Introduction • What is Interaction • Communication • Machine is capable of doing the job • Humans need to get the job done from the system User System User must communicate his requirements to the system 10/12/2014 3 The Interaction

  4. Contents • Introduction • Models of Interaction • Ergonomics • Interaction Styles • Interactivity • Experience, Engagement & Fun 10/12/2014 4 The Interaction

  5. Models of Interaction • Communication: Complex Human – Complex Systems • Models of Interaction • Help Understand what is going on in the Interaction • Identify the likely root of difficulties • Two Models • Norman’s Model (The execution-evaluation cycle) • Abowd and Beale framework 10/12/2014 5 The Interaction

  6. Some Terms of Interaction • Domain • The area of work under study • Graphic design Graphic shapes, drawing surface, drawing utensils • Tasks • Operations to manipulate the concepts of a domain • e.g. construction of graphic shape with certain attributes • Goal • What you want to achieve • e.g. create a solid red triangle Domain Concepts of Domain 10/12/2014 6 The Interaction

  7. Some Terms of Interaction • Task • How you go about doing it – Ultimately in terms of operations or actions • e.g. … select fill tool, click over triangle • Task Analysis • Identification of problem space for user of an interactive system in terms of the domain, goals, intentions and task 10/12/2014 7 The Interaction

  8. Some Terms of Interaction • Task Language • User’s language: Describes attributes of domain relevant to the User state • Core Language • System’s Language: Describes attributes of domain relevant to the System state 10/12/2014 8 The Interaction

  9. Norman’s Model of Interaction • Based on Execution – Evaluation Cycle • Two major stages: Execution & Evaluation • Execution • Establishing the goal • Forming the intention • Specifying the action sequence • Executing the action • Evaluation • Perceiving the system state • Interpreting the system state • Evaluating the system state with respect to the goals and intentions 10/12/2014 9 The Interaction

  10. Execution – Evaluation Cycle goal execution evaluation system • Example – Switching on the Light • Evening falls while reading 10/12/2014 10 The Interaction

  11. Execution – Evaluation Cycle goal execution evaluation system • Establishing the goal • Forming the intention • Specifying the action sequence • Executing the action • Perceiving the system state • Interpreting the system state • Evaluating the system state • You decide you need more light. Goal : Get more light • Intention: Switch on the lamp • Specify the Action Sequence to reach over an press the lamp switch • Action executed – Perceive the results: Light is on or not • Interpret – e.g. No light: Bulb has blown, Lamp not plugged in -> New Intentions • Light comes out – Evaluate the new state according to your goal • If the light is enough – Cycle Completes • If NOT, formulate a new intention of switching on he ceiling light for example 10/12/2014 11 The Interaction

  12. Using Norman’s Model • Some Systems are harder to use than others • Gulf of Execution – Difference b/w • User’s formulation of actions • Actions allowed by the system • AIM: Reduce this gulf • Gulf of Evaluation – Difference b/w • Presentation of the system state • User Expectation • More effort required to interpret presentation: Less effective Interaction 10/12/2014 12 The Interaction

  13. Human Error – Slips & Mistakes • Slip • Understand system and goal • Correct formulation of action • Incorrect action • Mistake • May not even have right goal! • Example • Slip: Mistype, accidental mouse press • Mistake: Magnifying glass icon – Find/Zoom 10/12/2014 13 The Interaction

  14. Human Error – Slips & Mistakes • Fixing Errors • Slips • Better interface design • E.g. Putting more space b/w buttons • Mistakes • Better understanding of the system • Improved training, radical redesigning 10/12/2014 14 The Interaction

  15. Abowd & Beale Framework O output S core U task I input • Interaction framework – Four parts • User • Input • System • Output • Each part has its own unique language • Interaction = Translation b/w languages • Input + Output = Interface • Interface sits b/w User and System 10/12/2014 15 The Interaction

  16. Abowd & Beale Framework • Interactive Cycle • User begins with formulation of a Goal/Task • Task articulated within the input language • Input language is translated to core language as operations to be performed • System transforms itself Articulation Performance System is in a new State 10/12/2014 16 The Interaction

  17. Abowd & Beale Framework • Interactive Cycle (Contd…) • System attribute values rendered to Output • User observes the output and asses the result of interaction w.r.t the Goal Presentation Observation Articulation Performance Problems in interaction = Problems in translation 10/12/2014 17 The Interaction

  18. Abowd & Beale Framework • Example: Video Recording using a remote control • Ineffective Interaction: User not sure VCR is set to record properly • Articulation: User pressed the keys on the remote in the wrong order • Performance: VCR may record any channel but remote control lacks the channel selection • Presentation: VCR display does not indicate the setting of program • Observation: User does not interpret the feedback properly 10/12/2014 18 The Interaction

  19. Contents • Introduction • Models of Interaction • Ergonomics • Interaction Styles • Interactivity • Experience, Engagement & Fun 10/12/2014 19 The Interaction

  20. Ergonomics Physical Aspects of Interaction 10/12/2014 20 The Interaction

  21. Ergonomics • Ergonomics is the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker • Ergonomics involves arranging the environment to ‘fit’ the person in it • Ergonomic Design/Products • Easy to use and comfortable • Reduce fatigue, strain • Enhance productivity 10/12/2014 21 The Interaction

  22. Ergonomics Examples • Arrangement of Controls & Displays • Grouped according to: Function, Sequence, Frequency • Surrounding Environment • Design of work Environment • Where will the system be used? • Who will use it? • For how long will it be used? • Seated users: Comfort, Back support etc. 10/12/2014 22 The Interaction

  23. Ergonomics Examples • Health Issues • Lighting, Noise, Temperature, Time Spent etc. Lighting Ergonomics 10/12/2014 23 The Interaction

  24. Ergonomics Examples • Use of Colour • An indicator – Not the only Cue • Color use – Coherent with common conventions • Red for Warning etc. 10/12/2014 24 The Interaction

  25. Contents • Introduction • Models of Interaction • Ergonomics • Interaction Styles • Interactivity • Experience, Engagement & Fun 10/12/2014 25 The Interaction

  26. Interaction Styles 10/12/2014 26 The Interaction

  27. Common Interaction Styles • Command line interface • Menus • Natural language • Question/answer and query dialogue • Form-fills and spreadsheets • WIMP • Point and click • Three–dimensional interfaces 10/12/2014 27 The Interaction

  28. Command Line Interface • Way of expressing instructions to the computer directly • Function keys, single characters, short abbreviations, whole words, or a combination • Powerful – Offers direct access to system functionality • Better for expert users than novices • Command names/abbreviations should be meaningful! 10/12/2014 28 The Interaction

  29. Menus • Set of options displayed on the screen • Options visible • Rely on recognition rather than recall • Easier to use • Names should be meaningful • Selection by: • numbers, letters, alphabets, arrow keys, mouse • Menus • Purely Text • May have a Graphical Component • Restricted form of full WIMP system 10/12/2014 29 The Interaction

  30. Menus 10/12/2014 30 The Interaction

  31. Natural Language • Familiar to user • Speech recognition or typed natural language • Problems • Ambiguity at Phrase Level • The boy hit the dog with the stick • Ambiguity of Individual words • Synonyms, Pronouns • General natural language interface – Unlikely • Restricted domain – Known Vocabulary 10/12/2014 31 The Interaction

  32. Query Interfaces • Question/answer interfaces • User led through interaction via series of questions • Query languages (e.g. SQL) • Used to retrieve information from database • Natural-language-style queries • SELECT Name FROMStudentsWHERE GPA > 3.0 • Requires understanding of database structure and language syntax, hence requires some expertise 10/12/2014 32 The Interaction

  33. Form-Fills • Primarily for data entry or data retrieval • Screen like paper form • Easy to Use • Generally allow • Blank Fields • Correction Facilities 10/12/2014 33 The Interaction

  34. Spread Sheets • Sophisticated variation of form-filling • Grid of cells contain a value or a formula • Formula can involve values of other cells • E.g. sum of all cells in this column • User can enter and alter data - spreadsheet maintains consistency • MS Excel – Most common spread sheet today 10/12/2014 34 The Interaction

  35. WIMP Interface • Windows, Icons, Menu, Pointers • Or Windows, Icons, Mice, and Pull-down menus • Default style for majority of interactive computer systems, especially PCs and desktop machines • Windows, MAC 10/12/2014 35 The Interaction

  36. Point and Click Interfaces • Commonly Used in .. • Multimedia • Web browsers • Hypertext • Just click something! • Icons, text links or location on map • Minimal typing • Web is a typical point and click interface • Closely related to WIMP 10/12/2014 36 The Interaction

  37. Three Dimensional Interfaces • Virtual Reality Interfaces • Ordinary WIMP elements: 3D Appearance • Shading • Sculptured flat buttons … click me! … or sculptured 10/12/2014 37 The Interaction

  38. Elements of the WIMP Interface • Windows, icons, menus, pointers • Buttons, toolbars, palettes, dialog boxes 10/12/2014 38 The Interaction

  39. Windows • Areas of the screen that behave as if they were independent • Can contain text or graphics • Can be moved or resized • Can overlap and obscure each other, or can be laid out next to one another (tiled) • Scrollbars • Allow the user to move the contents of the window up and down or from side to side • Title bars • Describe the name of the window 10/12/2014 39 The Interaction

  40. Windows Menu Bar Title Bar Scroll Bar 10/12/2014 40 The Interaction

  41. Icons • Small picture or image • Represents some object in the interface • Often a window or action • Icons can take many forms • Highly stylized • Realistic representations 10/12/2014 41 The Interaction

  42. Pointers • Important component • WIMP style relies on pointing and selecting things • Uses mouse, trackpad, joystick, trackball, cursor keys or keyboard shortcuts • Wide variety of Pointer Cursors • Cursor Hot-spot • The location to which it points 10/12/2014 42 The Interaction

  43. Pointers 10/12/2014 43 The Interaction

  44. Menus • Choice of operations or services offered on the screen • Required option selected with pointer 10/12/2014 44 The Interaction

  45. Menus • Menu Bar at top of screen (normally), menu drags down • Pull-down menu -Drags down on mouse click • Fall-down menus - Mouse just moves over bar 10/12/2014 45 The Interaction

  46. Menus • Pin-up menus – ‘Pinned’ to the screen, hides when asked • Pop-up menus • Contextual menu • Hidden – Pops up on request 10/12/2014 46 The Interaction

  47. Menus • Pie menus • Arranged in a circle • Easier to select item (larger target area) • Quicker (same distance to any option) • Take up more screen space – Not widely used! 10/12/2014 47 The Interaction

  48. Menus • Cascading menus • Hierarchical menu structure • Menu selection opens new menu 10/12/2014 48 The Interaction

  49. Menus • Keyboard accelerators • Key combinations - same effect as menu item • Two types • Active when menu open – usually first letter • Active when menu closed – usually Ctrl + letter 10/12/2014 49 The Interaction

  50. Menu Design Issues • Which kind of menu to use? • What to include in menus at all? • How to group items? • Order • Frequency and importance • Opposite functionalities • Choice of keyboard accelerators 10/12/2014 50 The Interaction