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Addressing Barriers to Participation and Successful Completion in Your Accountability Court. Darryl P. Turpin, MPA, CADC Pinwheel Group Louisville, KY. Why is Culture Important?. Minority populations are overly represented in the criminal justice system.
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Addressing Barriers to Participation and Successful Completion in Your Accountability Court Darryl P. Turpin, MPA, CADC Pinwheel Group Louisville, KY
Why is Culture Important? Minority populations are overly represented in the criminal justice system. These populations experience lower rates of program participation and higher rates of non-completion of treatment and recidivism.
Minorities in the US(US Census, BJA) • Over one-third of the U.S. population is from a minority group. • People of color make up about 30 percent of the United States’ population and they account for 60 percent of those imprisoned. • Black males have an imprisonment rate 7 times higher than white non-Hispanic males. Black females 3 times higher than white non-Hispanic women. • 67.5% of state prisoners with drug convictions in 2009 were minorities.
Program Participation and Completion Rates Minority populations have lower rates of participation in substance abuse programs Successful treatment outcomes were least likely for Blacks and Hispanics (42%) Successful treatment outcomes are least likely for episodes involving Blacks and Hispanics (42%) Treatment completion is lowest among Blacks (27%)
Minorities in Drug Court (Belenko, 2001; Dannerbeck et al., 2006; Finigan, in press; Shaffer, 2006; Shichor & Sechrest, 2001; Wiest et al., 2007) Research spanning the past two decades has consistently identified subgroups of drug court clients who have not fared well. Among the most reliable risk factors for failure in drug court programs include being: • younger (typically between age18 and 25) • male gender • African American race • lower socioeconomic status
Minorities in Drug Court (Belenko, 2001; Dannerbeck et al., 2006; Finigan, in press; Shaffer, 2006; Shichor & Sechrest, 2001; Wiest et al., 2007; Institute of Applied Research, 2003) • Graduation rates are frequently between 25 and 30 percentage points lower for African Americans than for other drug court participants • An evaluation conducted in the St. Louis City Drug Court reported that 94.9% of unsuccessfully terminated cases were African American males between the ages of 17 and 20 years
Barriers to Access • In many Drug Courts across the country, the drug court population does not reflect the general criminal justice population. Why? • BJA’s response to this issue: Grant applicants are required in their application to describe program’s screening and referral process which ensures that offenders screened and referred to drug court mirror the jurisdiction’s substance abuse arrestee percentages.
Assumptions and Misperceptions Example: A client with a Hispanic surname is handed forms in Spanish. Perception: She’s Latina. Assumption: She does not speak or understand English
Assumptions and Misperceptions Example: A client with a Hispanic surname is handed forms in Spanish. Reality: She is 3rd generation and does not speak or read Spanish. Emotional Response: Feels stereotyped and misunderstood. She is offended from the very start.
Race Versus Culture What assumptions do you make about these people?
The Expansiveness of Culture Race is external and is limiting. Culture is internal and limitless.
RACE • When working with an individual in drug court, looking at race alone clouds the issue. - Judgmental - Perceptions/Misconceptions - Stereotypical - Exclusive - Extrinsic
Every Interaction Involves Perceptions of Culture • How I understand my culture • How I see myself • Which social groups I identify with
Every Interaction Involves Perceptions of Culture • How I understand your culture • How I see you • Which social groups I identify you with • Life experience that I may or may not disclose to you
Possible Attitudes & Behaviors Presented When Entering Drug Court: Behavior • Sloppy dress • Questioning Actions • Refusal to look in the eyes Perception • Disrespectful • Distrust-healthy paranoia • Anger/hostility
Possible Attitudes & Behaviors Presented When Entering Drug Court: Behavior • Tardy, no show, incomplete tasks/assignments • No-verbal • War stories Perception • Resistant/lack of commitment • Refusal to develop rapport • Defeatist attitude
Discharged from Drug Court • inappropriate • arrogant • unmotivated • not ready • criminal (not addicted) • doesn’t care • unwilling to change
WHAT IS CULTURE? The word culture refers to the way of life of a particular group of people. Culture includes everything that a group of people thinks, says, does and makes. The way a group of people expresses themselves, how they move, and how they solve problems are all part of their culture. Culture is a set of rules by which a group of people guides its behavior and thinking.
Why Consider Cultural (Intrinsic) • Higher retention rates • Higher completion rates • Enhanced quality assurance • Lower attrition rates
Diagnostic Statistical Manual Criteria (DSM-IV-TR) • DSM IV-TR - demands that you cannot make a diagnosis when culture maybe an issue. For example… • When a person talks to dead relatives, does not necessarily mean that they are psychotic. Culturally, this may be accepted as a way to process how people grieve. • A person should not be considered to have paranoid ideations when they live in a drug or gang infested neighborhood. • Brain fatigue (trauma)
Towards a Definition of Cultural Competency • Cultural Sensitivity -Awareness of difference -Appreciation of difference -Aiming for positive relations
Cultural Competence • Cultural Competence -Can locate self within a cultural identity -Knowledge about cultural differences -Understanding of power dynamics involved in cross-cultural interactions -Application of self-awareness and cultural knowledge to one-on-one interactions
Culturally Proficient Drug Court Teams • Conduct research • Develop new service delivery approaches based on cultural context • Publish and disseminate results of demonstration efforts • Employ culturally competent specialists • Advocate for systems and social change
Cultural Proficiency is Shaped By: • Program Factors • Environmental Factors • Client Factors • Counselor, Case Manager Factors • Drug Court Team
Obstacles: Cultural Proficient Treatment Programs • Lack of Communication and Collaboration • Lack of Culturally Relevant Screening and Assessment Tools • Lack of Culturally Relevant Interventions and Continuing Care • Lack of Clinical Supervision (3) Levels • Lack of Quality Assurance
Strengths-Based Practice • The treatment and criminal justice systems have been dominated by two primary views. • In fact, many of our problems stem from the fact that our rehabilitative efforts are inadequate because of a vision problem -that a third viewpoint is needed.
The Victim View • Dysfunctional • Mentally ill • Abused-sexually, physically, emotionally • Damaged, diseased • Ignored, neglected • Victim of systems: school, health, community • Learning disabled • Sick, incapable, weak • Vulnerable • Will fall back into old patterns • Dependent-needing a long period of intensive therapy
The Villain View • Evil • Predatory • Without conscience • Selfish, arrogant, victimizer, manipulator • Untrustworthy, unreachable • Therapy/treatment a waste of time • Resistant and defiant • Dangerous/bloodthirsty • Not interested in changing • Conduct disordered-also paranoid, etc… • Needs to be controlled and contained
The Resource View • Can persist towards positive goals • Able to bond • Cares about family • Resilient –overcoming historical trauma • Creative • Leaders • Capable, competent • Willing and interested • Positive and fun • Open to positive leadership -looking for positive mentorship
The Strengths Approach: the Legacy • The pathology approach: view that clients become clients because they have deficits, problems, pathologies, and diseases -that they are flawed and weak • The diction and symbolism of weakness/deficit shape how others regard clients, how they regard themselves, etc.. • Diagnostic labels of all kinds become “master statuses” which potentially obscures or displace other relevant information about the client
The Pathology Approach • Person is a “case” or a “diagnosis” • Intervention is problem focused • The expert interprets the client’s story to arrive at a diagnosis • Childhood trauma predicts later pathology • Practitioner develops a treatment plan for the individual • Professional is expert concerning client’s life • The skills of the professional are the primary resource for the work to be done
Resiliency is a Strength • Insight –Recognition of Condition • Independence –Autonomy • Relationships –Bonding • Initiative –Self-Confidence • Creativity –Self Expression • Humor • Morality –Commitment to fairness
The Strengths Perspective • Person is unique with talents and resources • Intervention is possibility focused • The practitioner knows the client through their interpretation of events and meanings -not ours • Childhood trauma may contribute to strengths or weaknesses of the individual • Client’s, families, and communities’ aspirations are the focus of the work to be done • Individuals, families, and communities are viewed as the experts • Help focused on getting on with one’s life (Saleebey1996)
The Strengths Approach: Six Principles • The focus of the helping process is on the strengths, interests, abilities, knowledge and capacities of each person, not on their diagnosis, weaknesses or deficits • The relationship between consumers and workers becomes an essential part of the helping process • The people we are privileged to work with are considered directors of the helping process
The Strengths Approach: Six Principles (continued) • All human beings possess the inherent capacity to learn, grow, and change • The helping activities in this approach are designed to occur in the community -not in the confines of the building • The entire community is viewed as an oasis of potential resources to enlist on behalf of consumers -especially naturally occurring resources (Saleebey, 1997)
Cultural Strengths • How do we mobilize these cultural dynamics? • How do we overcome systems that were never designed to be culturally inclusive? • What are they? • How do we find out what cultural dynamics are present in the life of an individual that may assist in furthering success?
BLACKS WHITES (Anglo-Saxons) Verbal & Nonverbal miscommunication between cultural groups • Touching of one’s hair by another is a sign of affection. • Preference is for direct eye contact during listening & indirect eye contact during speaking as signs of attention & respect. • Public behavior is expected to be modest and emotionally restrained. Emotional displays are seen as irresponsible or in bad taste. • Heated arguments are viewed as suggesting that violence is imminent. • Inquiring about jobs, family, etc., of someone one had met for the first time is seen as friendly. • Rules of turn-taking in conversation dictate that one person at a time has the floor until all…points are made. • Use of expression “you people” is tolerated. • Touching of one’s hair by another person is often considered as offensive. • Preference is for indirect eye contact during listening, direct eye contact during speaking as signs of attentiveness and respect. • Public behavior may be emotionally intense, dynamic, and demonstrative. • A clear distinction is made between “arguing” & “fighting”. Verbal abuse is not necessary a precursor to violence. • Asking “personal questions” of someone has met for the first time is seen as improper and intrusive. • Interruption during conversation is usually tolerated. Competition for the floor is granted to person who is the most assertive. • Use of expression “you people” is seen as pejorative and racist. Koslow, Dianne & Elizabeth P. Salett (1989) Crossing Cultures in Mental Health
Overcoming Cultural variations • Become aware of the historical and current experiences of being a person of color in America • Consider values and cultural differences among ethnic groups and how your own personal values influence the way you interact with the client • Consider the way your personal values influence the way you view both the presenting problem and the goals for treatment. • Include the value system of the client in the goal-setting process. Be sensitive to spiritual values and the value of the family and the church
Overcoming Cultural variations • Be sensitive to variations due to stress and historical trauma, and be flexible enough to accept these variations • Be aware of ineffective verbal/nonverbal communication (as result of cultural variations in communication). Become familiar with nonstandard English, and accept its use by clients • Be aware that your target population might become so narrow that it is exclusive rather than inclusive • Consider the client’s problem in the large context. Include extended family, other significant individuals and the community
Overcoming Cultural variations • Consider how to make the program attractive to people of color • Be aware of the client’s racial identification, and do not feel threatened by the client’s cultural identification with his own race • Learn to acknowledge and be comfortable with the client’s cultural differences • Consider the appropriateness of specific therapeutic models or interventions to people of color. Do not apply interventions without considering the unique aspects of each client
Mentoring should be a strong component of programs that hope to impact the behavior of drug users/dealers.
Successful mentors might include prior convicts, people in recovery, and successful minority business owners from the community they live.
An Entrepreneur Model for Young Drug Dealers…Drug dealers in the Louisville, Kentucky Drug Court Program were involved in an entrepreneur/mentor program.Participants were matched with local business owners from “100 Black Men”. Participants learned how to develop a business from the ground up. Upon completion of a business plan, the mentor agency provided the participants with start-up money to open a business.
Open to positive leadership -looking for positive mentorship 100 Black Men Black Fraternities Men’s Faith-based Groups Men in Recovery Treatment Alumni
Africentric Models as suggested by Susan James-Andrews • HEAT (Habilitation Enhancement Accountability Therapy) • Enhance African/Black self consciousness • Holistic not individualistic • Recognize and utilize the history of the Black experience in America • Manhood/Womanhood training and rites of passage programs • Music • Address the difficult issues (not confront) • Address racial trauma (historical) • Racial profiling, Oppression, Skin color
Strength-Based Models; Faith Based (Black Church) • A sanctuary for a people who seek refuge from the day to day pressures of life. • The focal point of virtually many movements for change that affects their communities. • Confronts problems such as family instability, youth development, AIDS and other health issues. • The church continues to play its traditional role of welcoming the entire community
Cultural Competency & Substance Abuse among Latinos • Few tested models of culturally competent substance abuse treatment & prevention for Latinos. • Gap between “research” and “practice.” • Adaptation or Tailoring of models developed for the dominant population. • Cultural specific models -Includes immigration experience. -Process of adaptation (or not) -Minority Status Stress -Historical trauma theory