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ACTG 2110. Chapter 6 – Accounting for Merchandising Businesses. Merchandising Companies. Businesses that buy goods with the intention of reselling the goods at a higher price Ex.: Target, WalMart, Dillards, Krogers, Books-a-Million, Old Navy, Sears, Etc. Two new accounts

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Actg 2110

ACTG 2110

Chapter 6 – Accounting for Merchandising Businesses

Merchandising companies
Merchandising Companies

  • Businesses that buy goods with the intention of reselling the goods at a higher price

  • Ex.: Target, WalMart, Dillards, Krogers, Books-a-Million, Old Navy, Sears, Etc.

  • Two new accounts

    • Inventory – merchandise to be resold

      • Listed as a current asset on the balance sheet

    • Cost of goods sold – merchandise that has been sold

      • Expensed on the income statement

      • Generally a large expense (often the largest)

Operating cycle
Operating cycle

  • Cash>>>>>Buy inventory>>>>>>>Sell inventory>>>>>>>>>Collect cash from customers or the accounts receivable collections

  • Shorter the operating cycle, the better off you are (get cash back fast!!!)

Multi step income statement
Multi-step Income Statement

  • Net sales (Sales – sales returns and allowances – sales discounts)

  • Less cost of goods sold

  • Gross profit margin

  • Operating expenses

    • Selling expenses

    • General & Administrative expenses

  • Income from operations (Operating income)

  • Add other income (interest income)

  • Subtract other expenses (interest expense)

  • Net income

Other financial statements
Other Financial Statements

  • Single-step income statement

    • All revenues listed together (no other income)

    • All expenses listed together (no gross profit margin or other expenses)

  • Statement of owner’s equity

    • Same as for service businesses

  • Balance sheet

    • Now includes inventory as a current asset

Inventory systems


Inventory account continuously updated

Inventory is counted at the end of the period to see whether it agrees with accounting records

All purchases increase “Inventory”

Cost of goods sold is recorded every time a sale occurs


Inventory account only updated occasionally or “periodically”

Inventory is counted at end of the period

All purchases go to an expense account entitled “Purchases”

Cost of goods sold is backed into

Inventory Systems

Accounting for inventory perpetual system
Accounting for Inventory Perpetual System

  • Sales of Inventory (2 entries):

  • Cost of goods sold XXX

  • Inventory XXX

  • Accts. Rec./Cash XXX

  • Sales XXX

  • Sales Discounts

  • Cash XXX

  • Sales Discounts XXX

  • Accounts Receivable XXX

  • Sales Returns and Allowances

  • Sales Returns and Allowances XXX

  • Accounts Receivable/Cash XXX

Accounting for inventory perpetual system1
Accounting for Inventory Perpetual System

  • Purchases of inventory:

  • Inventory XXX

  • Accounts Payable XXX

  • Purchases Discounts

    • Payment terms 2/10, n/30

    • 2% discount if paid in 10 days, net must be paid by 30 days

    • Gross method (purchases discounts reduce the inventory amounts)

    • Net method (purchase recorded at the amount after the discount; if discount not taken, inventory is increased)

Accounting for inventory perpetual system2
Accounting for Inventory Perpetual System

  • Purchases returns and allowances

    • Recorded as decreases in inventory

  • Transportation Costs

    • Freight in (Added to inventory cost)

    • FOB Shipping point

      • Buyer generally pays freight

      • Buyer owns inventory when it reaches the “shipping point”

    • FOB Destination

      • Seller generally pays freight

      • Seller owns inventory until it reaches the buyer or the “destination”

    • Freight out/Delivery expense (Selling/marketing cost to deliver goods)

Sales taxes
Sales Taxes

  • Example:

  • Cash/Accts. Rec. 1,060

  • Sales 1,000

  • Sales Tax Payable 60

  • ($1,000 sale + 6% sales tax collected)

  • Sales Tax Payable 60

  • Cash 60

  • (Business pays sales tax to state)

Adjusting entries
Adjusting Entries

  • Adjust for inventory shrinkage

  • Example: Inventory records show $1,000, while inventory count shows $950

  • Cost of goods sold 50

  • Inventory 50

Financial analysis and interpretation
Financial Analysis and Interpretation

  • Ratio of net sales to assets (Asset turnover)

    • Net sales/Average assets

    • Represents how effective a business uses its assets to increase sales

    • Higher the ratio, the better

  • Net sales trends

  • Gross profit margins (Gross profit/Net sales)