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Goiters. Inga Guliyeva. What is that??. A goiter is simply a thyroid gland that has grown to an abnormally huge size. Etiology (Cause). Mild case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis that has not yet caused the thyroid to become underactive.

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goiters

Goiters

Inga Guliyeva

what is that
What is that??
  • A goiter is simply a thyroid gland that has grown to an abnormally huge size.
etiology cause
Etiology (Cause)
  • Mild case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis that has not yet caused the thyroid to become underactive.
  • White blood cells in the body produce “cytokines” that stimulate thyroid growth.
  • Body’s immune system produces immunoglobulin that stimulate too much thyroid growth. (Autoimmune disease)
  • Family history of goiter
  • Female Gender
  • Not getting enough iodine in the diet
  • Age over 40 years
signs symptoms
Coughing

Hoarseness

Difficulty breathing

Difficulty swallowing

Visible swelling at the base of the neck that is particularly obvious

A tight feeling in the throat

Signs & Symptoms
diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic Procedures
  • Feeling the Thyroid
    • Size of the gland, lumps suspicious of cancer
  • Blood Test
    • Measures the levels of TSH and T4 in the bloodstream that indicate whether or not the goiter is making a normal amount of thyroid hormone
  • Thyroid Scan
    • Patient takes oral capsules that contain a harmless radioactive tracer (iodine)
    • The amount of iodine is measured in the thyroid gland and a pictures is taken of the distribution of radioactive iodine in the thyroid
  • Ultrasound
    • Taking a picture inside the thyroid.
      • If there are no large lumps in the thyroid gland that are suspicious for cancer, then no biopsy needs to be done
prevention
Prevention
  • Getting enough iodine in the diet
  • Avoiding foods and medicines that can cause a goiter
    • Soybean related foods
    • Cruciferous vegetables
  • Some goiters cannot be prevented
prognosis
Prognosis
  • Simple goiter can disappear on its own or may become large
  • Over time, destruction to the thyroid can cause the gland to stop making enough thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism)
  • Goiter may become toxic and produce the thyroid hormone on its own
  • Goiters stick around until treated
treatment
Treatment
  • Subtotal thyroidectomy
    • Most of the thyroid gland is removed
    • Putting patients on the thyroid hormone pill can help shrink the goiter
      • Others say that does not work and can cause Osteoporosis