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Cisco CCNA student presentation @ Napier University. Routing Information Protocol RIP. Why is a Routing Protocol needed? Purpose of Routing information Which route? Metrics Routing tables RIP datagram and RIP port Questions. Why is a routing protocol needed?.

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routing information protocol rip
Cisco CCNA student presentation @ Napier University.

Routing Information ProtocolRIP

Why is a Routing Protocol needed?

Purpose of Routing information

Which route?


Routing tables

RIP datagram and RIP port


Telewest Communications Group

why is a routing protocol needed
Why is a routing protocol needed?
  • Early requirements to exchanges data between computers over interconnected networks.
  • Routing entities had to make a judgement on which path to route traffic to destination.

Telewest Communications Group

background to rip
Background to RIP
  • RIP dates back to 1969, the early networking days and ARPNET when Xerox and Berkley’s Unix implemented it broadly similar protocols.
  • RIP distributed through ‘route d’ application, included in early Unix O.S.
  • RIP uses a single class of routing algorithm known as distance vector - based on a simple hop count algorithm (derived from Bellman’s equation).
  • Although superseded by more complex algorithms, its simplicity means is still found widely in smaller autonomous systems.
purpose of routing protocol
Purpose of Routing Protocol
  • The purpose of RoutING protocols is to supply information needed to do routing of datagrams from router to router.
  • RIP intended for use in IP based network environment.
  • Operating at layer 3 of OSI (Network)
  • RIP makes no formal distinction between networks and hosts.
  • Routers typically provide a gateway for datagrames to leave one network or AS and be forwarded onward to another network.
  • Routers therefore, have to make decisions if there is a choice of forwarding path on offer.
which way
Which way?
  • A path must be found between the source and destination.
  • Without a direction to follow packet would have to randomly circulate the whole internetwork looking for its destination.
  • If the networks are not adjacent then the path will be through several routers.
routing metrics
Routing metrics
  • Routing entities keep a database (look up table) of basic information based on numeric result s (metric) of an algorithm to forward a datagram onward to its next destination.
  • Each entity participating in routing decisions sends update messages to its neighbour.
  • In order to provide complete network routing information every router within the AS must participate in the protocol.
  • Each router has a lookup table which contains one entry for every destination that is reachable.
how does a metric work
How does a metric work?
  • Metrics are the result of a formula based on a choice of measurement criteria.

Example, travel cost by taxi:

£10 to go by taxi from Edinburgh to Livingston. (P1)

£25 to go from Livingston to Glasgow (P2)

£15 to go from Edinburgh to Falkirk (P3)

£30 to go from Falkirk to Glasgow (P4)

Cost (Edinburgh, Glasgow) = [P1+P2] = £35

also/or [P3+P4] = £45

what is in a rip routing table
What is in a RIP routing table?
  • Address - IP address (IPv4) of host or network destination.
  • Router - First router along the route to destination.
  • Interface - The physical network which must be used to reach the next router.
  • Metric - A number indicating the distance to the destination. This number is the sum of the ‘costs’ that have to be transversed to get to the destination.
  • Timers - Time since entry was last updated and others.
  • Flags - Various flags to indicate status of various adjacent routers (for example).
other entries in the routing table
Other entries in the routing table
  • The entries for directly connected networks typically have a value of 1 (a simple hop count).
  • Initially subnet masks were not included in RIP protocol implementations, but were included later to support feature extensions and to identify different subnets within local and distant networks.
  • Administrators may also add static routes for example, which are outside the scope of the routing system.
the rip datagram
The RIP datagram
  • RIP is a UDP-based protocol.
  • Small regular messages, no need for windowing, handshaking or re-transmission.
  • Frames received and transmitted on UDP port number 520 (Rip 1&2)
  • 1 - 25 RIP routing entries RTEs.

Telewest Communications Group

  • Stephen Webster
  • Gino Rigitano
  • Telewest Communications
  • 0131 539 0002

Telewest Communications Group