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Chapter 24: The Forearm, Wrist, Hand and Finger. Anatomy of the Forearm. Blood and Nerve Supply. Most of the flexors are supplied by the median nerve Most of the extensor are controlled by the radial nerve Blood is supplied by the radial and ulnar arteries. Assessment of the Forearm.

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blood and nerve supply
Blood and Nerve Supply
  • Most of the flexors are supplied by the median nerve
  • Most of the extensor are controlled by the radial nerve
  • Blood is supplied by the radial and ulnar arteries
assessment of the forearm
Assessment of the Forearm
  • History
    • What was the cause?
    • What were the symptoms at the time of injury, did they occur later, were they localized or diffuse?
    • Was there swelling and discoloration?
    • What treatment was given and how does it feel now?
slide8
Observation
    • Visually inspect for deformities, swelling and skin defects
    • Range of motion
    • Pain w/ motion
  • Palpation
    • Palpated at distant sites and at point of injury
    • Can reveal tenderness, edema, fracture, deformity, changes in skin temperature, a false joint, bone fragments or lack of bone continuity
palpation bony and soft tissue
Proximal head of radius

Olecranon process

Radial shaft

Ulnar shaft

Distal radius and ulna

Radial styloid

Ulnar head

Ulnar styloid

Distal radioulnar joint

Radiocarpal joint

Extensor retinaculum

Flexor retinaculum

Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Brachioradialis

Extensor pollicis longus and brevis

Palpation: Bony and Soft Tissue
palpation continued
Abductor pollicis longus

Extensor indicus supinator

Flexor carpi radialis

Palmaris longus

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor digitorum profundus

Flexor pollicis longus

Pronator quadratus

Pronator teres

Palpation (continued)
recognition and management of injuries to the forearm
Recognition and Management of Injuries to the Forearm
  • Contusion
    • Etiology
      • Ulnar side receives majority of blows due to arm blocks
      • Can be acute or chronic
      • Result of direct contact or blow
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling and hematoma
      • If repeated blows occur, heavy fibrosis and possibly bony callus could form w/in hematoma
slide12
Contusion (continued)
    • Management
      • Proper care in acute stage involves RICE for at least one hour and followed up w/ additional cryotherapy
      • Protection is critical - full-length sponge rubber pad can be used to provide protective covering
slide13
Forearm Splints
    • Etiology
      • Forearm strain - most come from severe static contraction
      • Cause of splints - repeated static contractions
      • Difficult to manage
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Dull ache between extensors which cross posterior aspect of forearm
      • Weakness and pain w/ contraction
      • Point tenderness in interosseus membrane
    • Management
      • Treat symptomatically
      • If occurs early in season, strengthen forearm; when it occurs late in season treat w/ cryotherapy, wraps, or heat
      • Can develop compartment syndrome in forearm as well and should be treated like lower extremity
slide14
Forearm Fractures
    • Etiology
      • Common in youth due to falls and direct blows
      • Ulna and radius generally fracture individually
      • Fracture in upper third may result in abduction deformity due pull of pronator teres
      • Fracture in lower portion will remain relatively neutral
      • Older athlete may experience greater soft tissue damage and greater chance of paralysis due to Volkman’s contracture
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Audible pop or crack followed by moderate to severe pain, swelling, and disability
      • Edema, ecchymosis w/ possible crepitus
slide15
Management
    • Initially RICE followed by splinting until definitive care is available
    • Long term casting followed by rehab plan
slide16
Colles’ Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Occurs in lower end of radius or ulna
      • MOI is fall on outstretched hand, forcing radius and ulna into hyperextension
      • Less common is the reverse Colles’ fracture
slide17
Signs and Symptoms
    • Forward displacement of radius causing visible deformity (silver fork deformity)
    • When no deformity is present, injury can be passed off as bad sprain
    • Extensive bleeding and swelling
    • Tendons may be torn/avulsed and there may be median nerve damage
  • Management
    • Cold compress, splint wrist and refer to physician
    • X-ray and immobilization
    • Severe sprains should be treated as fractures
    • Without complications a Colles’ fracture will keep an athlete out for 1-2 months
    • In children, injury may cause lower epiphyseal separation
slide18
Madelung Deformity
    • Etiology
      • Developmental deformity of the wrist
      • Associated with changes in radius, ulna and carpal bone  results in palmar and ulnar wrist subluxations
      • Common in female athletes – particularly gymnasts
      • Carpals become wedged between radius and ulna following epiphyseal plate changes
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Bowing of radius and ulna evident on X-ray
      • Wrist pain and loss of forearm rotation
      • Palmar subluxation with prominence of radius and ulnar styloid processes
slide19
Madelung Deformity (continued)
    • Management
      • Therapeutic modalities and NSAID’s for pain
      • Wrist can be taped or braced to prevent wrist extension
      • Typically corrected surgically in athletes with chronic pain and disability
blood and nerve supply1
Blood and Nerve Supply
  • Three major nerves
    • Ulnar, median and radial
  • Ulnar and radial arteries supply the hand
    • Two arterial arches (superficial and deep palmar arches)
assessment of the wrist hand and fingers
Assessment of the Wrist, Hand and Fingers
  • History
    • Past history
    • Mechanism of injury
    • When does it hurt?
    • Type of, quality of, duration of, pain?
    • Sounds or feelings?
    • How long were you disabled?
    • Swelling?
    • Previous treatments?
slide29
Observation
    • Postural deviations
    • Is the part held still, stiff or protected?
    • Wrist or hand swollen or discolored?
    • General attitude
    • What movements can be performed fully and rhythmically?
    • Thumb to finger touching
    • Color of nailbeds
palpation bony
Scaphoid

Trapezoid

Trapezium

Lunate

Capitate

Triquetral

Pisiform

Hamate (hook)

Metacarpals 1-5

Proximal, middle and distal phalanges of the fingers

Proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb

Palpation: Bony
palpation soft tissue
Triangular fibrocartilage

Ligaments of the carpals

Carpometacarpal joints and ligaments

Metacarpophylangeal joints and ligaments

Proximal and distal interphylangeal joints and ligaments

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Lumbricale muscles

Flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus

Palmer interossi

Flexor pollicis longus and brevis

Abductor pollicis brevis

Opponens pollicis

Opponens digiti minimi

Palpation: Soft Tissue
palpation soft tissue1
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor digitorum

Extensor indicis

Extensor digiti minimi

Dorsal interossi

Extensor pollicis brevis and longusAbductor pollicis longus

Palpation: Soft Tissue
slide33
Special Tests
    • Finklestein’s Test
      • Test for de Quervain’s syndrome
      • Athlete makes a fist w/ thumb tucked inside
      • Wrist is ulnarly deviated
      • Positive sign is pain indicating stenosising tenosynovitis
      • Pain over carpal tunnel could indicate carpal tunnel syndrome
    • Tinel’s Sign
      • Produced by tapping over transverse carpal ligament
      • Tingling, paresthesia over sensory distribution of the median nerve indicates presence of carpal tunnel syndrome
slide34
Phalen’s Test
    • Test for carpal tunnel syndrome
    • Position is held for approximately one minute
    • If test is positive, pain will be produced in region of carpal tunnel
slide35
Valgus/Varus and Glide Stress Tests
    • Tests used to assess ligamentous integrity of joints in hands and fingers
    • Valgus and varus tests are used to test collateral ligaments
    • Anterior and posterior glides are used to assess the joint capsule
slide36
Lunotriquetral Ballotment Test
    • Stabilize lunate while sliding the triquetral anteriorly and posteriorly
    • Assessing laxity, pain and crepitus
    • Positive test indicates instability that often results in dislocation of the lunate
slide37
Circulatory and Neurological Evaluation
    • Hands should be felt for temperature
      • Cold hands indicate decreased circulation
    • Pinching fingernails can also help detect circulatory problems (capillary refill)
    • Allen’s test can also be used
      • Athlete instructed to clench fist 3-4 times, holding it on the final time
      • Pressure applied to ulnar and radial arteries
      • Athlete then opens hand (palm should be blanched)
      • One artery is released and should fill immediately (both should be checked)
    • Hand’s neurological functioning should also be tested (sensation and motor functioning)
slide38
Functional Evaluation
    • Range of motion in all movements of wrist and fingers should be assessed
    • Active, resistive and passive motions should be assessed and compared bilaterally
      • Wrist - flexion, extension, radial and ulnar deviation
      • MCP joint - flexion and extension
      • PIP and DIP joints - flexion and extension
      • Fingers - abduction and adduction
      • MCP, PIP and DIP of thumb - flexion and extension
      • Thumb - abduction, adduction and opposition
      • 5th finger - opposition
recognition and management of injuries to the wrist hand and fingers
Recognition and Management of Injuries to the Wrist, Hand and Fingers
  • Wrist Sprains
    • Etiology
      • Most common wrist injury
      • Arises from any abnormal, forced movement
      • Falling on hyperextended wrist, violent flexion or torsion
      • Multiple incidents may disrupt blood supply
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling and difficulty w/ movement
slide40
Management
    • Refer to physician for X-ray if severe
    • RICE, splint and analgesics
    • Have athlete begin strengthening soon after injury
    • Tape for support can benefit healing and prevent further injury
slide41
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC) Injury
    • Etiology
      • Occurs through forced hyperextension, falling on outstretched hand
      • Violent twist or torque of the wrist
      • Often associated w/ sprain of UCL
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain along ulnar side of wrist, difficulty w/ wrist extension, possible clicking
      • Swelling is possible, not much initially
      • Athlete may not report injury immediately
slide42
Management
    • Referred to physician for treatment
    • Treatment will require immobilization initially for 4 weeks
    • Immobilization should be followed by period of strengthening and ROM activities
    • Surgical intervention may be required if conservative treatments fail
slide43
Tenosynovitis
    • Etiology
      • Cause of repetitive wrist accelerations and decelerations
      • Repetitive overuse of wrist tendons and sheaths
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain w/ use or pain in passive stretching
      • Tenderness and swelling over tendon
    • Management
      • Acute pain and inflammation treated w/ ice massage 4x daily for first 48-72 hours, NSAID’s and rest
      • When swelling has subsided, ROM is promoted w/ contrast bath
      • Ultrasound and phonphoresis can be used
      • PRE can be instituted once swelling and pain subsided
slide44
Tendinitis
    • Etiology
      • Repetitive pulling movements of (commonly) flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris; repetitive pressure on palms (cycling) can cause irritation of flexor digitorum
      • Primary cause is overuse of the wrist
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain on active use or passive stretching
      • Isometric resistance to involved tendon produces pain, weakness or both
    • Management
      • Acute pain and inflammation treated w/ ice massage 4x daily for first 48-72 hours, NSAID’s and rest
      • When swelling has subsided, ROM is promoted w/ contrast bath
      • PRE can be instituted once swelling and pain subsided (high rep, low resistance)
slide45
Nerve Compression, Entrapment, Palsy
    • Etiology
      • Median and ulnar nerve compression
      • Result of direct trauma to nerves
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Sharp or burning pain associated w/ skin sensitivity or paresthesia
      • May result in benediction/ bishop’s deformity
      • (damage to the ulnar nerve) or claw hand deformity (damage to both nerves)
      • Palsy of radial nerve produces drop wrist deformity caused by paralysis of extensor muscles
      • Palsy of median nerve can cause ape hand (thumb pulled back in line w/ other fingers)
    • Management
      • Chronic entrapment may cause irreversible damage
      • Surgical decompression may be necessary
slide46
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Etiology
      • Compression of median nerve due to inflammation of tendons and sheaths of carpal tunnel
      • Result of repeated wrist flexion or direct trauma to anterior aspect of wrist
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Sensory and motor deficits (tingling, numbness and paresthesia); weakness in thumb
    • Management
      • Conservative treatment - rest, immobilization, NSAID’s
      • If symptoms persist, corticosteroid injection may be necessary or surgical decompression of transverse carpal ligament
slide47
de Quervain’s Disease (Hoffman’s disease)
    • Etiology
      • Stenosing tenosynovitis in thumb (extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus
      • Constant wrist movement can be a source of irritation
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Aching pain, which may radiate into hand or forearm
      • Positive Finklestein’s test
      • Point tenderness and weakness during thumb extension and abduction; painful catching and snapping
slide48
de Quervain’s Disease (Hoffman’s disease)
    • Management
      • Immobilization, rest, cryotherapy and NSAID’s
      • Ultrasound and ice are also beneficial
      • Joint mobilizations have been recommended to maintain ROM
slide49
Dislocation of Lunate Bone
    • Etiology
      • Forceful hyperextension or fall on outstretched hand
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling, and difficulty executing wrist and finger flexion
      • Numbness/paralysis of flexor muscles due to pressure on median nerve
    • Management
      • Treat as acute, and sent to physician for reduction
      • If not recognized, bone deterioration could occur, requiring surgical removal
      • Usual recovery is 1-2 months
slide50
Scaphoid Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Caused by force on outstretched hand, compressing scaphoid between radius and second row of carpal bones
      • Often fails to heal due to poor blood supply
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Swelling, severe pain in anatomical snuff box
      • Presents like wrist sprain
      • Pain w/ radial flexion
    • Management
      • Must be splinted and referred for X-ray prior to casting
      • Immobilization lasts 6 weeks and is followed by strengthening and protective tape
      • Wrist requires protection against impact loading for 3 additional months
slide51
Hamate Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Occurs as a result of a fall or more commonly from contact while athlete is holding an implement
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Wrist pain and weakness, along w/ point tenderness
      • Pull of muscular attachment can cause non-union
    • Management
      • Casting wrist and thumb is treatment of choice
      • Hook of hamate can be protected w/ doughnut pad to take pressure off area
slide52
Wrist Ganglion
    • Etiology
      • Synovial cyst (herniation of joint capsule or synovial sheath of tendon)
      • Generally appears following wrist strain
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Appear on back of wrist generally
      • Occasional pain w/ lump at site
      • Pain increases w/ use
      • May feel soft, rubbery or very hard
    • Management
      • Old method was to first break down the swelling through distal pressure and then apply pressure pad to encourage healing
      • New approach includes aspiration, chemical cauterization w/ subsequent pressure from pad
      • Ultrasound can be used to reduce size
      • Surgical removal is most effective treatment method
slide53
Contusion and Pressure Injuries of Hand and Fingers
    • Etiology
      • Result of blow or compression of bones w/in hand and fingers
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain and swelling of soft tissue
    • Management
      • Cold compression until hemorrhaging has ceased
      • Follow w/ gradual warming - soreness may still be present -- padding may also be necessary
      • Bruising of distal phalanx can result in subungual hematoma - extremely painful due to build-up of pressure under nail
        • Pressure must be released once hemorrhaging has ceased
slide54
Bowler’s Thumb
    • Etiology
      • Perineural fibrosis of subcutaneous ulnar digital nerve of thumb
      • Pressure from bowling ball on thumb
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, tingling during pressure on irritated area and numbness
    • Management
      • Padding, decrease amount of bowling
      • If condition continues, surgery may be required
slide55
Trigger Finger or Thumb
    • Etiology
      • Repeated motion of fingers may cause irritation, producing tenosynovitis
      • Inflammation of tendon sheath (extensor tendons of wrist, fingers and thumb, abductor pollicis)
      • Thickening occurs w/in the sheath, forming a nodule that does not slide easily
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Resistance to re-extension, produces snapping that is palpable, audible and painful
      • Palpation produces pain and lump can be felt w/in tendon sheath
    • Management
      • Same treatment as de Quervain’s disease -- if unsuccessful, injection and splinting are last options
slide56
Mallet Finger (baseball or basketball finger)
    • Etiology
      • Caused by a blow that contacts tip of finger avulsing extensor tendon from insertion
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain at DIP; X-ray shows avulsed bone on dorsal proximal distal phalanx
      • Unable to extend distal end of finger (carrying at 30 degree angle)
      • Point tenderness at sight of injury
    • Management
      • RICE and splinting for 6-8 weeks
slide57
Boutonniere Deformity
    • Etiology
      • Rupture of extensor tendon dorsal to the middle phalanxForces DIP joint into extension and PIP into flexion
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Severe pain, obvious deformity and inability to extend DIP joint
      • Swelling, point tenderness
    • Management
      • Cold application, followed by splinting
      • Splinting must be continued for 5-8 weeks
      • Athlete is encouraged to flex distal phalanx
slide58
Jersey Finger
    • Etiology
      • Rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendon from insertion on distal phalanx
      • Often occurs w/ ring finger when athlete tries to grab a jersey
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • DIP can not be flexed, finger remains extended
      • Pain and point tenderness over distal phalanx
    • Management
      • Must be surgically repaired
      • Rehab requires 12 weeks and there is often poor gliding of tendon, w/ possibility of re-rupture
slide59
Dupuytren’s Contracture
    • Etiology
      • Nodules develop in palmer aponeurosis, limiting finger extension - ultimately causing flexion deformity
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Often develops in 4th or 5th finger (flexion deformity)
    • Management
      • Tissue nodules must be removed as they can ultimately interfere w/ normal hand function
slide60
Sprains, Dislocations and Fractures of Phalanges
    • Etiology
      • Phalanges are prone to sprains caused by direct blows or twisting
      • MOI is also similar to that which causes fractures and dislocations
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Recognition primarily occurs through history
      • Sprain symptoms - pain, severe swelling and hematoma
  • Gamekeeper’s Thumb
    • Etiology
      • Sprain of UCL of MCP joint of the thumb
      • Mechanism is forceful abduction of proximal phalanx occasionally combined w/ hyperextension
slide61
Signs and Symptoms
    • Pain over UCL in addition to weak and painful pinch
  • Management
    • Immediate follow-up must occur
    • If instability exists, athlete should be referred to orthopedist
    • If stable, X-ray should be performed to rule out fracture
    • Thumb splint should be applied for protection for 3 weeks or until pain free
    • Splint should extend from wrist to end of thumb in neutral position
    • Thumb spica should be used following splinting for support
slide62
Sprains of Interphalangeal Joints of Fingers
    • Etiology
      • Can include collateral ligament, volar plate, extensor slip tears
      • Occurs w/ axial loading or valgus/varus stresses
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling, point tenderness, instability
      • Valgus and varus tests may be positive
    • Management
      • RICE, X-ray examination and possible splinting
      • Splint at 30-40 degrees of flexion for 10 days
      • If sprain is to the DIP, splinting for a few days in full extension may assist healing process
      • Taping can be used for support
slide63
Swan Neck Deformity and PsuedoBoutonniere Deformity
    • Etiology
      • Distal tear of volar plate may cause Swan Neck deformity; proximal tear may cause PsuedoBoutonniere deformity
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling w/ varying degrees of hyperextension
      • Tenderness over volar plate of PIP
      • Indication of volar plate tear = passive hyperextension
    • Management
      • RICE and analgesics
      • Splint in 20-30 degrees of flexion for 3 weeks; followed by buddy taping and then PRE
slide64
PIP Dorsal Dislocation
    • Etiology
      • Hyperextension that disrupts volar plate at middle phalanx
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain and swelling over PIP
      • Obvious deformity, disability and possible avulsion
    • Management
      • Treated w/ RICE, splinting and analgesics followed by reduction
      • After reduction, finger is splinted at 20-30 degrees of flexion for 3 weeks -- followed by buddy taping
slide65
PIP Palmar Dislocation
    • Etiology
      • Caused by twist while digit is semiflexed
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain and swelling over PIP; point tenderness over dorsal side
      • Finger displays angular or rotational deformity
    • Management
      • Treat w/ RICE, splinting and analgesics followed by reduction
      • Splint in full extension for 4-5 weeks after which it is protected for 6-8 weeks during activity
slide66
MCP Dislocation
    • Etiology
      • Caused by twisting or shearing force
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain, swelling and stiffness at MCP joint
      • Proximal phalanx is angulated at 60-90 degrees
    • Management
      • RICE, splinting following reduction
      • Buddy taping and given early ROM following splinting
slide67
Metacarpal Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Direct axial force or compressive force
      • Fractures of the 5th metacarpal are associated w/ boxing or martial arts (boxer’s fracture)
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain and swelling; possible angular or rotational deformity
    • Management
      • RICE, analgesics are given followed by X-ray examinations
      • Deformity is reduced, followed by splinting - 4 weeks of splinting after which ROM is carried out
slide68
Bennett’s Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Occurs at carpometacarpal joint of the thumb as a result of an axial and abduction force to the thumb
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • CMC may appeared to be deformed - X-ray will indicate fracture
      • Athlete will complain of pain and swelling over the base of the thumb
    • Management
      • Structurally unstable and must be referred to an orthopedic surgeon
slide69
Distal Phalangeal Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Crushing force
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Complaint of pain and swelling of distal phalanx
      • Subungual hematoma is often seen in this condition
    • Management
      • RICE and analgesics are given
      • Protective splint is applied as a means for pain relief
      • Subungual hematoma is drained
slide70
Middle Phalangeal Fracture
    • Etiology
      • Occurs from direct trauma or twist
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Pain and swelling w/ tenderness over middle phalanx
      • Possible deformity; X-ray will show bone displacement
    • Management
      • RICE and analgesics
      • No deformity - buddy tape w/ thermoplastic splint for activity
      • Deformity - immobilization for 3-4 weeks and a protective splint for an additional 9-10 weeks during activity
slide71
Proximal Phalangeal Fracture
    • Etiology
      • May be spiral or angular
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Complaint of pain, swelling, deformity
      • Inspection reveals varying degrees of deformity
    • Management
      • RICE and analgesics are given as needed
      • Fracture stability is maintained by immobilization of the wrist in slight extension, MCP in 70 degrees of flexion and buddy taping
slide72
PIP Fractures and Dislocation
    • Etiology
      • Combination of fracture and dislocation is the result of an axial load on a partially flexed finger
    • Signs and Symptoms
      • Condition causes pain and swelling in the region of the PIP joint
      • Localized tenderness over the PIP
    • Management
      • RICE, analgesics, followed by reduction of the fracture
      • If there is a small fragment, buddy taping is used
      • Large fragments - splint at 30-60 degrees of flexion
slide73
Fingernail Deformities
    • Changes in normal appearance of the fingernail can be indicative of a number of different diseases
      • Scaling or ridging = psoriasis
      • Ridging and poor development = hyperthyroidism
      • Clubbing and cyanosis = congenital heart disorders or chronic respiratory disease
      • Spooning or depression = chronic alcoholism or vitamin deficiency
rehabilitation of injuries to the forearm wrist hand and fingers
Rehabilitation of Injuries to the Forearm, Wrist, Hand and Fingers
  • General Body Conditioning
    • Must maintain pre-injury level of conditioning
    • Cardiorespiratory, strength, flexibility and neuromuscular control
    • Many exercise options (particularly lower extremity)
  • Joint Mobilizations
    • Wrist and hand respond to traction and mobilization techniques
slide75
Flexibility
    • Full pain free ROM is a major goal of rehabilitation
    • The program should include active assisted and active pain free stretching
  • Strength
    • Exercises should not aggravate condition or disrupt healing process
    • A variety of exercises are available for strength (wrist and hand)
slide76
Neuromuscular Control
    • Hand and fingers require restoration of dexterity
      • Pinching, fine motor activities (buttoning buttons, tying shoes, and picking up small objects)
    • Customized bracing, splints and taping techniques are available to protect the injured wrist and hand
  • Return to Activity
    • Grip strength must be equal bilaterally, full range of motion and dexterity
    • Thumb has unique strength requirements
    • Manual resistance can be instituted to strengthen major motions; intrinsic muscles can be strengthened w/ rubber band