Optimality Theory

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# Optimality Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Optimality Theory. Abdullah Khalid Bosaad 刘 畅 Liú Chàng. Optimality Theory. OT in real life; OT in Yawelmani ; The strength of OT. Optimality Theory in real life. How do I group these people ?. Optimality Theory in real life?. What is OT ?.

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### Optimality Theory

Optimality Theory
• OT in real life;
• OT in Yawelmani;
• The strength of OT.
Optimality Theory in real life
• How do I group these people?
What is OT ?
• an approach in phonological description pioneered by Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (1993).
The Fundamentals of OT

The structure:

• CON (Constraint component)
• GEN (Generator component)
• EVAL(Evaluator component)
• CON : a universal set of constraints.
• Faithfulness constraints—prohibits difference between input and output.
• Dep constraint: output depends on input
• /input/ …{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}
The Fundamentals of OT
• GEN : a mapping of inputs to every possible output, producing candidates
• /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}
• EVAL: a method for choosing the best candidate.
• /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}

Eval[output]

OT in Yawelmani:
• Spoken in California
• Syllables cannot be bigger than CVC pattern.

EX: Input /ʔilk-hin/  output=[ ? ]

• 1. ʔil.k.hin
• 2. ʔi.lik.hin
• 3. ʔi.li.ki.hin
• 4. ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
OT in Yawelmani:
• Input /ʔilk-hin/GEN{[ cand1,… cand4,… ]}EVALoutput=[ ]

Candidate set:

• Can1= ʔil.k.hin
• Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
• Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
• Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
Apply * C unsyll (unsyllabified consonant is ungrammatical)

Apply Dep

Input /ʔilk-hin/

• Can1= ʔil.k.hin
• Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
• Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
• Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
• Favors 2,3,4 over 1 (because [k] is unsyllabified)
• Favors 1, over 2 over 3 over 4
OT in Yawelmani:
OT in Yawelmani:
• Constraint Hierarchy:

C unsyll>>Dep

• Output= Cand2 [ʔi.lik.hin]
The strength of OT

Yawelmani:

• Delete a vowel at the end of a word.
• /taxa-ka/  /ta.xak/, /taxa-mi//ta.xam/
• V deletion: Vø / VC____#
The strength of OT
• / xat.ka/  ?
• /xat.ka/? VS /xat.k/?
• / xat.ka / exists.
• *C unsyll—prohibits unsyllabified consonants. /xat.k/ is ungrammatical.
• *V#--end vowel deletion.
The strength of OT
• C unsyll >> V# :C unsyll has a higher priority than V# (C unsyll dominates V#), so / xat.ka/ exist and */ xat.k/ does not.
The strength of OT
• models grammars as systems that provide mappings from inputs to outputs; typically, the inputs are conceived of as underlying representations, and the outputs as their surface realizations.
• proposes that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints.
• Constraint prioritization ranking is fundamental to OT