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Optimality Theory. Abdullah Khalid Bosaad 刘 畅 Liú Chàng. Optimality Theory. OT in real life; OT in Yawelmani ; The strength of OT. Optimality Theory in real life. How do I group these people ?. Optimality Theory in real life?. What is OT ?.

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optimality theory

Optimality Theory

Abdullah Khalid Bosaad

刘畅 LiúChàng

optimality theory1
Optimality Theory
  • OT in real life;
  • OT in Yawelmani;
  • The strength of OT.
optimality theory in real life
Optimality Theory in real life
  • How do I group these people?
what is ot
What is OT ?
  • an approach in phonological description pioneered by Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (1993).
the fundamentals of ot
The Fundamentals of OT

The structure:

  • CON (Constraint component)
  • GEN (Generator component)
  • EVAL(Evaluator component)
  • CON : a universal set of constraints.
    • Faithfulness constraints—prohibits difference between input and output.
    • Dep constraint: output depends on input
      • /input/ …{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}
the fundamentals of ot1
The Fundamentals of OT
  • GEN : a mapping of inputs to every possible output, producing candidates
    • /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}/buk-z/ {[buks, bugz, bukz… ]}
  • EVAL: a method for choosing the best candidate.
    • /input/ GEN{cand1, cand2,…}

Eval[output]

ot in yawelmani
OT in Yawelmani:
  • Spoken in California
  • Syllables cannot be bigger than CVC pattern.

EX: Input /ʔilk-hin/  output=[ ? ]

  • 1. ʔil.k.hin
  • 2. ʔi.lik.hin
  • 3. ʔi.li.ki.hin
  • 4. ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
ot in yawelmani1
OT in Yawelmani:
  • Input /ʔilk-hin/GEN{[ cand1,… cand4,… ]}EVALoutput=[ ]

Candidate set:

  • Can1= ʔil.k.hin
  • Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
  • Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
  • Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
ot in yawelmani2
Apply * C unsyll (unsyllabified consonant is ungrammatical)

Apply Dep

Input /ʔilk-hin/

  • Can1= ʔil.k.hin
  • Can2= ʔi.lik.hin
  • Can3= ʔi.li.ki.hin
  • Can4= ʔi.li.ki.hi.ni
  • Favors 2,3,4 over 1 (because [k] is unsyllabified)
  • Favors 1, over 2 over 3 over 4
OT in Yawelmani:
ot in yawelmani3
OT in Yawelmani:
  • Constraint Hierarchy:

C unsyll>>Dep

  • Output= Cand2 [ʔi.lik.hin]
the strength of ot
The strength of OT

Yawelmani:

  • Delete a vowel at the end of a word.
    • /taxa-ka/  /ta.xak/, /taxa-mi//ta.xam/
    • V deletion: Vø / VC____#
the strength of ot1
The strength of OT
  • / xat.ka/  ?
    • /xat.ka/? VS /xat.k/?
    • / xat.ka / exists.
    • *C unsyll—prohibits unsyllabified consonants. /xat.k/ is ungrammatical.
    • *V#--end vowel deletion.
the strength of ot2
The strength of OT
  • C unsyll >> V# :C unsyll has a higher priority than V# (C unsyll dominates V#), so / xat.ka/ exist and */ xat.k/ does not.
the strength of ot3
The strength of OT
  • models grammars as systems that provide mappings from inputs to outputs; typically, the inputs are conceived of as underlying representations, and the outputs as their surface realizations.
  • proposes that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints.
  • Constraint prioritization ranking is fundamental to OT