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Weaving Scientific Discourse into Your Science Classroom. Marie Crawford & Dr. Tom Keating April 1, 2014. You Can Access This Presentation At:. You Can Access The Resource Folder At: http://goo.gl/VJh0z0. http://goo.gl/JYfQhp. Slowing Down May Be A Way of Speeding Up!.

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slide1

Weaving Scientific Discourse into Your Science Classroom

Marie Crawford & Dr. Tom Keating

April 1, 2014

you can access this presentation at

You Can Access This Presentation At:

You Can Access The Resource Folder At:

http://goo.gl/VJh0z0

http://goo.gl/JYfQhp

slide3

Slowing Down May Be A Way of Speeding Up!

Science programs provide a rich milieu in which to develop language and thought. Confronted with phenomena and given some freedom to investigate, children work hard at converting their experiences into language. Just as a person might draw a map to show someone how to get from one place to another, so children construct a language map that expresses the relationships they discover and the ways in which they interpret events. Their experiences compel them to conversation.

Mary Budd Rowe (1973)

Teaching Science As Continuous Inquiry

slide4

Questions to ponder in this session…

  • Why should we have students engage in purposeful, focused, & extended academic talk in science?
  • What are key features of academic language and academic conversations in science?
  • How can we scaffold & assess conversation skills?
slide5

Let’s look a little deeper…

  • Why should we have students engage in purposeful, focused, & extended academic talk in science?
scientific argumentation
Scientific Argumentation
  • Definition - The opportunity for students to engage in scientific reasoning by asking students to construct an argument and to evaluate critically the arguments of others = to develop their ability to reason and think
  • Argument and debate are common in science - virtually absent from Science Education!
  • Arguing from evidence is a Central Theme of NGSS - referenced to approximately 100 times in Framework Document
  • Need to establish norms of Scientific Academic Conversations in order to engage in meaningful and respectful Scientific Argumentation
slide7

Initial Evidence

  • Students don’t talk deeply enough.
  • When students do talk, it ends quickly (IRF).
  • Students use short sentences or fragments to express ideas.
  • Students don’t naturally listen well or build off the ideas of others.
  • Whole and small group discussions tend to produce limited academic talk.
  • The social aspect of learning is often overlooked.
slide8

Think Share

  • What are you noticing about the quality of conversations in your science classroom?
  • Share out your ideas
slide9

We want kids to…

  • Talk with purpose & focus
  • Actively listen & clarify
  • Elaborate & provide evidence
  • Build on each other’s ideas or challenge them
  • Connect and apply ideas to their lives and the world
  • See other perspectives
  • Grapple with Science

content

  • Have flexible thinking
  • Take risks
slide10

What is Academic Language?

Science vocabulary(brick)

Hypothesize Evidence Analyze Justify

PlanCritiqueCompare

Evaluate

Text structure Transitions Pronouns Clauses

PrepositionsWord orderPunctuation

Terms that travel across disciplines

Grammar & organization

Science vocabulary(brick)

slide11

3 Ingredients for Acquiring Language

1. Input

2. Output

3. Co-construction of Meaning

slide12

Conversational Behaviors

Face Each Other

Lean Forward

Use Eye Contact

Use Gestures

slide13

Strategy 1: Pro Con Improv

  • Pick a controversial topic with pro & con positions
  • Pair student and assign ‘director’ and ‘speaker’ roles
  • Director says ‘pro’ and speaker presents pro reasons for topic (30 secs)
  • Director says ‘con’ and speaker uses transition word (but, however,yet, on the other hand, etc,) and presents con reasons (30 secs)
  • Switch roles
slide14

Topic: Gray Wolf Reintroduction

  • TED Radio Hour: The Fragile, Invisible Connections of the Natural World
  • NPR Story: Government Revisits Contested Wolf Recovery Plan
slide15

Pro Con Improv: Gray Wolves

  • Discuss the Pros/ Cons of Gray Wolf Reintroduction
  • Director says ‘pro’ and speaker presents pro reasons for topic (30 secs)
  • Director says ‘con’ and speaker uses transition word (but, however,yet, on the other hand, etc,) and presents con reasons (30 secs)
  • Switch roles
slide16

Strategy 2: Interview Grid

  • Present students with an interview grid
  • Ask students to interview one student at a time, recording notes for each question.
  • Move to another student until at least 3-4 students have been interviewed.

Interview Grid sample

slide17

Strategy 3: Take a Stand

  • State a deliberation question and post
  • Place ‘Yes/ Agree’ on one side of room and ‘No/ Disagree’ on the other side
  • Students write down answers with supporting argument
  • Direct students to ‘Take a Stand’ by going to the sign that they support
  • Students individually share their position, with option to change position
slide18

Strategy: Take a Stand

Deliberation Question: Do you support the movement to delist the Gray Wolf as an endangered species?

Support Resources

  • Current US Fish and Wildlife status for the Gray Wolf
  • The Wolf Conservation Center’s Support of the Gray Wolf
  • Montana FIsh, Wildlife and Parks Wolf Management Page
slide19

Think Share

  • How did these simple activities increase thinking and conversation?
  • Share out your ideas
slide20

Strategy 4: Academic Conversations

  • Poster of prompts & symbols
  • Feature cards with symbolsx
  • Hand motions for prompts
  • Model& practice scientific conversations

Topic

slide21

Elaborate, Clarify, Probe

Question Stems

Can you elaborate on..?

What do you mean by...?

Can you tell me more about…?

Clarify what you mean by…

What makes you think that?

Can you be more specific?

Response Stems

In other words,..

An analogy might be…

What I mean is...

AC Skill: Elaborate,Clarify, Probe

Elaborate, Clarify, Probe

x (pull hands apart)

Frames for prompting the skill:

Can you elaborate on..?

What do you mean by..?

Can you tell me more about..?

Clarify what you mean by...

What makes you think that?

Can you be more specific?

Frames for responding:

In other words,..

An analogy might be...

What I mean is...

slide22

Support ideas

Question Stems

What is the evidence for that?

Where did you find that evidence?

How do you justify that?

What would illustrate that idea?

Can you provide an example from something you have learned or experienced?

Response Stems

For example,…

To demonstrate,...

According to…

For instance,...

In the text it said that…

AC Skill: Support Ideas

Support ideas with evidence from this text, other texts, the world, & own life

(Touch index fingers to make an X)

Frames for prompting the skill:

What is the evidence for that?

Where did you find that evidence?

How do you justify that?

What would illustrate that idea?

Can you provide an example?

Frames for responding:

For example,...

To demonstrate…

According to….

For instance,...

In this text it said that...

slide23

Build on/ Challenge Ideas

Question Stems

What do you think about this idea?

Can you add to this idea?

Do you agree or disagree?

Response Stems

I would add that…

I agree with_______because_______…

I disagree with that because…

I disagree with your use of that evidence because

I want to expand on your point about…

I see it another way…

AC Skill: Build on/Challenge Ideas

Build On and/or Challenge Ideas

(Layer hands on each other and build up)

Frames for prompting the skill:

What do you think about this idea?

Can you add to this idea?

Do you agree or disagree?

Frames for responding:

I would add that…

I agree with____because____...

I disagree with that because…

I disagree with your use of that evidence because...

I want to expand on your point about...

slide24

Paraphrase

Question Stems

Does that make sense?

I’m not sure if that was clear...

Do you understand what I’m saying?

What is your take on what I’m saying?

Response Stems

Let me see if I understand you...Is that right?

So, what you are saying is that…

To summarize, you are arguing that…

It sounds like you are saying...

AC Skill: Paraphrase

Paraphrase partner’s ideas

x (Touch ear)

Frames for prompting the skill:

Does that make sense?

I’m not sure that was clear…

Do you understand what I’m saying?

What is your take on what I’m saying?

Frames for responding:

Let me see if I understand you…

So what you are saying is…

To summarize, you are arguing that…

It sounds like you are saying...

slide25

Synthesize ideas

Question Stems

What have we discussed so far?

Can we synthesize what we’ve discussed?

How can we bring this all together?

What main points can we share?

What can we agree upon?

What key ideas can we take away?

Response Stems

We can say that…

As a result of talking, we think that…

How does this sound…?

The evidence seems to suggest.....

AC Skill: Synthesize

Synthesize conversation points

(Cup both hands into a ball)

Frames for prompting the skill:

What have we discussed so far?

Can we synthesize what we’ve discussed?

How can we bring this all together?

What main points can we share?

What can we agree upon?

What key ideas can we take away?

Frames for responding:

We can say that…

As a result of talking, we think that…

How does this sound…?

The evidence seems to suggest...

slide26

Norms for ACs

Norms:

- We actively listen to each other

- We share our own ideas and explain them

- We respect one another’s ideas, even if they are

different from our own

- We respectfully disagree, while seeking to understand the other perspective

- We accept challenges to our ideas

- We let others finish their idea without interrupting

- We try to come to some agreement in the end

- We take turns and share air time

slide27

Behaviors for ACs

Behaviors:

  • Appropriate eye contact
  • Face one another (with whole body)

- Attentive posture (lean toward the partner)

- Positive Gestures

- Backchanneling, (Uh huh, Wow, Interesting, Hmmmm, Yes, Okay, I see, Really?)

- Silence (to allow thinking and putting thoughts into words)

- Prosody (changing voice tone, pitch, and emphasis)

slide28

Strategy 5: Conversation Lines

  • Students form 2 lines (or inner/ outer circles) facing each other.
  • Teacher poses a thought provoking question or controversial topic for students to discuss with partner.
  • One line moves, to provide new conversation partner.
  • Teacher poses same (or different) question/ topic
  • Repeat
slide29

Strategy: Conversation Lines

Deliberation Questions:

- What have been the benefits and problems from the reintroduction of the gray wolves?

- Should keystone predators, such as the Gray Wolf, be protected under a different set of criteria than for other species?

- Should the Gray Wolf be delisted as an endangered species?

slide30

Strategy 6: Fishbowl Conversation

  • Ask for 2 volunteers to present their conversation to the class or small group
  • Volunteers face each other and have a conversation based on a given topic or question
  • Observers offer feedback at end of conversation
slide32

Strategy 7: Structured Academic Controversy

  • Place students into groups of 4
  • Introduced a real world topic to explore from differing perspectives (pro/con)
  • Students split into pairs to research and form argument for opposing sides
  • Group reforms, presents arguments then, thoughtfully listens and share back what was heard
  • Students switch sides and repeat process
  • Whole group selects best reasoning and synthesizes into new, agreed upon position
slide33

Strategy 7: Structured Academic Controversy

Deliberation Question:

- Should the Gray Wolf be delisted as an endangered species?

Perspectives to consider:

- Ecologist

- US Fish & Wildlife Service

- Ranchers & Hunters

- Eco-tourists

slide34

Think Share

  • Discuss how the previous teaching strategies supported in-depth thinking and conversation.
  • Share out your ideas
slide36

Video - Two Young Scientists

How do these ladies think and talk like scientists?

slide38

AC: More ‘talk time’ for everyone

Notice the multiple conversations and social learning

slide40

Ask Higher LevelThinkingQuestions!

Level 3

Question Stems

What are the parts or features of...?

Can you classify...according to...

Can you predict the outcome of…?

What evidence can you list for...?

Which events could have happened...?

How would you test….?

What do you see as other possible outcomes?

What conclusions can you draw from…?

Level 2

Question Stems

How is...an example of...?

How is...related to...?

Why is...significant?

Could this have happened in...?

Can you apply what you have learned to this..?

Can you compare/ contrast?

How would you summarize ____?

Can you develop a set of instructions about...?

Level 2

Question Stems

How is...an example of...?

How is...related to...?

Why is...significant?

Could this have happened in...?

Can you apply what you have learned to this..?

Can you compare/ contrast?

How would you summarize ____?

Can you develop a set of instructions about...?

Level 4

Question Stems

Can you defend your position about...?

What information can you gather to support your idea about….?

Can you apply information from multiple sources to develop an well substantiated claim or opinion?

Can you develop a thesis, drawing from multiple sources of credible information?

Level 1

Question Stems

Retell

Can you write in your own words...?

Can you write a brief outline...?

What do you think could of happened next...?

Who do you think...?

How would you describe

Can you distinguish between...?

What differences exist between...?

Can you provide an example of what you mean...?

slide41

Level 2

Question Stems

How is...an example of...?

How is...related to...?

Why is...significant?

Could this have happened in...?

Can you apply what you have learned to this..?

Can you compare/ contrast?

How would you summarize ____?

Can you develop a set of instructions about...?

Strategy 8:Teach Levels of Questioning

slide42

Think Share

  • Discuss ways that you might incorporate deeper questioning skills into conversations and/or whole group discussions
  • Share out your ideas
slide44

Questions to ponder in this session…

  • Why should we have students engage in purposeful, focused, & extended academic talk in science?
  • What are key features of academic language and academic conversations in science?
  • How can we scaffold & assess conversation skills?
slide45

Thank You for Joining Us!

Contact Info:

Dr. Tom Keating

tkeating@scsdk8.org

Marie Crawford

mcrawford@scsdk8.org

slide46

Strategy 8:Teach Levels of Questioning

Level 1:

What are some of the benefits of reintroducing the Gray Wolf?

Level 2:

Compare and contrast the benefits and problems associated with reintroducing the Gray Wolf.

Level 3:

Identify and present the arguments for at least 2 distinct and opposing perspectives regarding the controversy to delist the Gray Wolf.

Level 4:

Synthesize the opposing arguments and perspectives regarding the controversy to delist the Gray Wolf and present your unique position.