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Chemical Reactions and Acids/Bases. Physical Science. Chemical Reactions. When 2 or more elements chemically combine to form a “ new ” substance. Chemical Equation. Is a representation of a chemical reaction Two Parts Reactants Products. Reactants vs Products. C + O 2  CO 2

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chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • When 2 or more elements chemically combine to form a “new” substance
chemical equation
Chemical Equation
  • Is a representation of a chemical reaction
  • Two Parts
      • Reactants
      • Products
reactants vs products
Reactants vs Products

C + O2 CO2

The arrow () divides an equation in half

Products

The new substance(s) that form

All things on the right side of the “”

Ex: CO2

  • Reactants
    • The substance(s) that undergo the change
    • All things on the left side of the “”
    • Ex: C & O2
id the reactants and products
Id the Reactants and Products
  • 2Cu + O2 2CuO
  • 2KClO3  2KCl + 3O2
  • HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O
  • N2H4 + O2  N2 + 2H2O
endothermic vs exothermic
Endothermic vs Exothermic
  • Endothermic
    • Reaction absorbs energy from its surrounding
    • Surrounding becomes warmer
  • Exothermic
    • Reaction releases energy to the surrounding
    • Surrounding becomes warmer
signs of a reaction
Signs of a Reaction
  • Production of a GAS
    • Fizzing, bubbling
  • Formation of a Precipitate
    • Insoluble solid
  • Energy is released
    • Light, heat
  • Color Change
counting atoms
Counting Atoms
  • Number in front is called a coefficient
  • Coefficients are multiplied to all elements behind it
  • Subscripts go to what they just follow
counting atoms practice
Counting Atoms Practice
  • 2CO2
  • Mg(OH)2
  • 3Ca(NO3)2
  • NH4OH
how do i balance an equation
How Do I Balance an Equation?
  • Id the elements present
  • Count the amount of atoms on both sides of the “” for each element
  • Place coefficients in front of compounds and multiply to any subscript
  • Recount the atoms to see if they are equal
balancing practice 1
Balancing Practice #1

____Cu + ____O2 ____CuO

balancing practice 2
Balancing Practice #2

____N2H4 + ____O2 ____N2 + ____H2O

balancing practice 3
Balancing Practice #3

____KClO3 ____KCl + ____O2

why balance
Why Balance?
  • The Law of Conservation of Matter
    • Matter is neither created nor destroyed
    • Start = Finish
types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • 4 Main Types
    • Synthesis
    • Decomposition
    • Single Replacement
    • Double Replacement
  • 2 Special Types
    • Combustion Reaction
    • Neutralization Reaction
synthesis reaction a b ab
Synthesis ReactionA + B  AB
  • When 2 or more substances react to form a single substance
  • 21
  • Dating: Becoming a Couple
decomposition reaction ab a b
Decomposition ReactionAB  A + B
  • When a compound breaks down into two or more substances
  • 12
  • Dating: Breaking Up
single replacement reaction a bc b ac
Single Replacement ReactionA + BC  B + AC
  • A reaction in which one element trades places with another element in a compound
  • Element and Compound

Element and Compound

  • Dating: CHEATING
double replacement reaction ab cd ad bd
Double Replacement ReactionAB + CD  AD + BD
  • Where two different compounds exchange positive ions (cations) to form two new compounds
  • All compounds
    • (4 of them)
  • Dating: Swingers
type of reaction practice
Type Of Reaction Practice
  • Na3PO4 + 3KOH  3NaOH + K3PO4
  • P4 + 3O2  2P2O3
  • Pb + FeSO4  PbSO4 + Fe
  • CaCO3  CaO + CO2
special reaction combustion reaction
Special Reaction: Combustion Reaction
  • When a hydrocarbon (hydrogen and carbon together) reacts with Oxygen
  • Products are always CO2 & H2O
  • Ex:

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + H2O

acids
Acids
  • Compounds that produces hydronium (H+) ions when dissolved in water
  • Formula start with “H”
acid properties
Acid Properties
  • Sour Taste
  • Reacts violently with metals
  • Electrolyte
  • Burns the skin
common acids
Common Acids
  • Hydrochloric Acid—HCl
  • Sulfuric Acid—H2SO4
  • Nitric Acid—HNO3
  • Citric Acid—C6H8O7
  • Acetic Acid—CH3COOH
bases
Bases
  • Compound that produces hydroxide (OH--) ions when dissolved in water
  • Formula ends in “OH”
base properties
Base Properties
  • Bitter Taste
  • Slippery Feel
  • Will burn the skin
common bases
Common Bases
  • Calcium Hydroxide—Ca(OH)2
  • Magnesium Hydroxide—Mg(OH)2
  • Sodium Hydroxide--NaOH
how to determine if a compound is an acid or base
How to Determine If A Compound is an Acid or Base?
  • ACID’s Formula starts with “H”
  • BASE’s Formula end in “OH”
  • If it does neither then it is a SALT
acid base or salt
Acid, Base or Salt?
  • LiOH
  • HCl
  • NaCl
  • NH4OH
  • Ca3(PO4)2
  • H2SO4
special reaction neutralization reaction
Special Reaction:Neutralization Reaction
  • When a reaction between an ACID and a BASE produced A SALT and WATER
  • A Double Replacement Reaction

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

ph scale
pH Scale
  • Used to determine how acidic or basic something is
  • From 0—14 (number line)
  • Acid Range: 0—6
  • Strong Acid: 0—2
  • Base Range: 8—14
  • Strong Base: 10—14
  • Water has a pH of 7 (neutral)
indicators
Indicators
  • Blue Litmus Paper
    • Acid—turns Red
    • Base—no change
  • Red Litmus Paper
    • Acid—no change
    • Base—turns Blue
indicators1
Indicators
  • pHPaper
    • Acid—turns red, orange, yellow tints
    • Base—turns blue-green to dark blue tints
  • Phenolphthalein
    • Acid—stays clear
    • Base—turns hot pink