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Cell Structure and function. Chapter 4 (in the Rizzo Class Sequence) Chapter 7 in Prentice Hall. Section Outline. Section 7-1. 7–1 Life Is Cellular A. The Discovery of the Cell 1. Early Microscopes 2. The Cell Theory B. Exploring the Cell C. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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cell structure and function

Cell Structure and function

Chapter 4

(in the Rizzo Class Sequence)

Chapter 7 in Prentice Hall

slide2

Section Outline

Section 7-1

  • 7–1 Life Is Cellular

A. The Discovery of the Cell

1. Early Microscopes

2. The Cell Theory

B. Exploring the Cell

C. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

1. Prokaryotes

2. Eukaryotes

watch out
Watch Out!!!!
  • Keep a watchful eye out for website links some can be used to access labs, animations or videos hosted online.
anton van leeuwenhoek

Section Outline

Anton van Leeuwenhoek,

1665 - 75 Anton van Leeuwenhoek,

  • the person incorrectly given credit for the invention of the microscope
  • studies organisms living in pond water .
  • He calls them "Animalcules."
robert hooke

Section Outline

Robert Hooke
  • 1665 - looks at cork under a microscope.
  • Calls the chambers he see "cells"
schleiden and schawann

Section Outline

Schleiden and Schawann

1830 - German scientists summarize the findings of many scientists and conclude that all living organisms are made of cells .

rudolf virchow

Section Outline

Rudolf Virchow

1855- Stated, ”All Cells come from Pre-existing Cells”

cell theory all organisms are composed of cells

Section Outline

Cell Theory “All organisms are composed of cells”
  • The cell is the structural unit of life - units smaller than cells are not alive
  • The cell is the Functional unit of life
  • Cells arise by division of preexisting cells - spontaneous generation does not exist
cell theory

Section Outline

Cell Theory

3 facts 3 Exceptions

prokaryotic vs eukaryotic
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cell

Nucleus

Eukaryotic Cell

Organelles

prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Section 7-1

Prokaryotic Cell

Nucleus

Eukaryotic Cell

Organelles

slide13

Venn Diagrams

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

*Complex

**Forms tissues

***Has Membrane

bound Organelles

EX. Nucleus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Cytoskeleton

*simpler

**Normally single celled Bacteria

***NO (lacks) membrane organelles

Cell membrane

Contain DNA

Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

division of labor

Interest Grabber

Division of Labor

Section 7-2

  • A cell is made up of many parts with different functions that work together. Similarly, the parts of a computer work together to carry out different functions.
  • Working with a partner, answer the following questions.
  • 1. What are some of the different parts of a computer?
    • What are the functions of these computer parts?
  • 2. How do the functions of these computer parts correspond to the functions of certain cell parts?
nucleus
Nuclear Double membrane with pores

Outer membrane continuous with ER

Chromatin: Single stranded,balled up chromosomes

Chromosomes - protein and DNA complexes

Nucleolus - involved in the synthesis and assembly of Ribosomes

Nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
an extensive membranous network continuous with the outer nuclear membrane

Smooth ER: lacks Ribosomes and is involved in membrane lipid synthesis

Rough ER: has Ribosomes and is involved in secreted protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum
golgi who apparatus complex bodies
Flattened vesicles in stacks which receive protein from ER

Form secretory vesicles to transport proteins to different parts of the cell

(vacuole, Lysosomes, etc) or for secretion

Golgi Who? apparatus, complex, bodies
animal vacuole
major storage for food, water enzymes and waste

Digestive - break down of macromolecules

Storage - ions, sugars, amino acids, toxic waste

Ex. Contractile vacuole, food

Animal Vacuole
lysosomes
found mostly in animal cells

contain enzymes for use in the hydrolysis (breakdown) of macromolecules (digestion)

Breaks down

food

damaged or Old cell organelles

Suicide Bags??

Sun BURN!!!!

Ex. Peroxisome

Lysosomes
peroxisome
Eukaryotic organelle that degrades fatty acids and amino acids

Also degrades the resulting hydrogen peroxide

Peroxisome
mitochondria
Found in ALL eukaryotic cells (yes, even in plant cells)

Site of aerobic respiration

sugars + O2 - - > ATP + CO2 + H2O

Contain DNA which codes for mitochondrial proteins, Ribosomes, etc.

Divide by a process similar to binary fission when cell divides (asexual replication??)

Enclosed in a double membrane system

Mitochondria
check your answers plant cell
Check your answers: Plant Cell

Do Now 10/23:

Smooth endoplasmic

reticulum

Vacuole

Chloroplast

Ribosome

(attached)

Cell

Membrane

Nuclear

envelope

Cell wall

Nucleolus

Golgi apparatus

Nucleus

Mitochondrion

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosome

(free)

Cytoplasm

Plant Cell

animal cell
Animal Cell

Do Now 10/23:

Check your answers:

Ribosome

(attached)

Nucleolus

Nucleus

Cell

Membrane

Nuclear

envelope

Mitochondrion

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum

Rough

endoplasmic

reticulum

Centrioles

Golgi apparatus

Ribosome

(free)

Vacuole

centrosomes and centrioles
Found only in Animal Cells

The centrosome, also called the "microtubule organizing center", is an area in the cell where microtubles are produced.

Within an animal cell centrosome there is a pair of small organelles, the Centrioles, each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules.

There are three fused microtubules in each group. The two Centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other.

Centrosomes and Centrioles
chloroplasts
Found only in plant cells

Site of photosynthesis

conversion of solar energy to chemical energy in the form of ATP and sugars

Contain DNA which codes for chloroplast proteins, Ribosomes, etc.

Divide when plant cell divides

5. Enclosed in a double membrane envelope that does not envelope into the chloroplast

Chloroplasts
chloroplasts30
Thylakoid is a third internal membrane system

contains membrane-bound photosynthetic pigments

site of photochemistry (the conversion of light energy to ATP)

site of O2 generation

Stroma is soluble portion of chloroplast

site of CO2 fixation

site of sugar synthesis (carbon metabolism)

site of chloroplast protein synthesis????

Chloroplasts
chloroplasts32
Chloroplasts

The photosynthesis reactions can be broken down into two components:

  • The light-dependent reactions (the "light" reactions) - occur on the thylakoid membranes
  • The light-independent reactions (the "dark" reactions) - occur in the stroma
cytoskeleton
Microfilaments

solid protein (actin) which is assembled at one end and disassembled at the other end

Intermediate filaments - rope-like fibrous proteins

provide structural reinforcement

anchor organelles

keep nucleus in place

Microtubules - hollow tubes

maintains cell shape

anchor organelles

movement of organelles

track for motor proteins

Cytoskeleton
cell movements
Cell Movements
  • internal, referred to as cytoplasmic streaming AKA CYCLOSIS

Internal movements of organelles are governed by actin filaments.

These filaments make an area in which organelles such as chloroplasts can move.

2. external, referred to as motility. (Motile)

Determined by special organelles for locomotion.

    • Pseudpods
    • Cilia, 1000s of hairs, being much shorter
    • Flagella, 1-12 hairs

They both have the characteristic 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules.

slide36

__________

__________

Large __________

Complete the Venn Diagram on page 9 In Your “CELL PROTFOLIO” packet.

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

1__________

2__________

3 __________

4 __________

5 __________

6 __________

7 __________

8 __________

9 __________

__________

Many more

__________

slide37

Cell Wall

Chloroplasts

Large Water Vacuole

The cell appears

To have more straight

Edged

“walls”

Venn Diagrams

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

1 Cell membrane

2 Ribosomes

3 Nucleus

4 Endoplasmic reticulum

5 Golgi apparatus

6 Lysosomes

7 Vacuoles

8 Mitochondria

9 Cytoskeleton

Centrioles

Many more

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

The cell appears

Irregular shaped

slide38

7–3 Cell Boundaries

Section Outline

A. Cell Membrane

B. Cell Walls

  • Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

Measuring Concentration (ppm)

1. Passive Transport

a. Diffusion

b. Osmosis

Osmotic Pressure

c. Plasmolysis

d. Facilitated Diffusion

2. Active Transport

Molecular Transport

a. Endocytosis

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

b. Exocytosis

slide39

Section Outline

Cell Wall

    • Provides support and protection
    • Found in:
      • Fungi-chitin
  • Algae-composed of cellulose
      • Plants-composed of cellulose
    • Cellulose (plant starch) is probably the single most abundant organic molecule in the biosphere.
      • Tough carbohydrate fibers
    • It is the major structural material of plants
      • Wood = Paper
      • Corn Kernels
      • Lettuce (mostly cellulose)
cell membrane
Cell Membrane
  • Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
  • Made up of proteins, lipids and carbohydrate markers.
  • Also known as :
    • “The Gate Keeper”
    • lipid bilayer or Bilipid Layer
    • plasma membrane
    • Selectively Permeable barrier
lipid bilayer to the fluid mosaic
Lipid Bilayer to the Fluid Mosaic
  • A model used to conceptualize the cells plasma membrane
  • the membranes are described as a structurally and functionally asymmetric lipid-bilayer studded with embedded proteins
  • Named so because the phosopholipids shiftposition in the membrane almost effortlessly (fluid),
  • (A mosaic is an image made up of many small images).
    • Examples: lipid molecules, various proteins, carbohydrates, and cholesterol

http://home.earthlink.net/~shalpine/anim/Life/memb.htm

figure 7 12 the structure of the cell membrane
Figure 7-12 The Structure of the Cell Membrane

Outside

of cell

Carbohydrate

chains

Proteins

Cell

membrane

Inside

of cell

(cytoplasm)

Protein

channel

Lipid bilayer

Section 7-3

concentration gradient
Concentration Gradient
  • The difference in concentration between a region of high concentration and a region of low concentration
measuring concentration ppm
Measuring Concentration (ppm)
  • Mass of the solute in a given volume of solution.
  • 12g/3L = 4g/L
  • Parts Per _?__
concentration gradient47
Concentration Gradient
  • The graduated difference in concentration of a solute per unit distance through a solution.
  • high concentration to low concentration
    • HCLC
transport
Transport
  • Is the absorption and circulation within an organism
absorption
Absorption
  • The passage of materials across the cell membrane and into the cell
circulation
Circulation
  • The movement of materials within a cell and/or throughout an organism

a) Intercellular circulation

*blood circulation

b) intracellular circulation

- within the cell (cyclosis)

passive transport

Passive Transport

vs.

Active Transport

slide52
Passive Transport:

Mvmt of materials Without use of energy.

With Concentration Gradient

HCLC

Examples:

Diffusion

Osmosis

Facilitated Diffusion

Plasmolysis

Active Transport

Mvmt of materials using of energy.

Against Concentration gradient

LCHC

Examples:

Endocytosis

Phagocytosis

Pinocytosis

Exocytosis

Re: Contractile Vacuole

passive transport54
Passive Transport
  • A type of transport in which materials move across the cell membrane without using energy
  • With the concentration Gradient ( high concentration to low concentration)
diffusion
Diffusion
  • The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis
Osmosis
  • The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
  • Example of Passive transport
slide58

Osmosis

Section 7-3

osmosis59
Osmosis
  • Movie
effects of osmosis on cells
Effects of Osmosis on Cells
  • Isotonic: concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside the cell
  • Hypertonic: Solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell
  • Hypotonic: Solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell

Osmosis video site

http://www.ccr.buffalo.edu/etomica/app/modules/sites/Osmosis/Background1.html

facilitated diffusion62
Facilitated Diffusion

Glucose

molecules

High

Concentration

Cell

Membrane

Protein

channel

Low

Concentration

plasmolysis
Plasmolysis
  • Plasmolysis is the loss of water from the cell by osmosis.
  • This can be proven by inducing the evacuation of water from the water vacuole by changing the environmental concentrations…. How?  

Plasmolysis video site

red blood cells video site

plasmolysis64
Plasmolysis

Plasmolysis video site

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/plasmolysis.jpg

plasmolysis65
Plasmolysis

Plasmolysis lab

active transport
Active Transport
  • A type of transport requiring energy to move materials across the cell membrane

(low concentration to high concentration)

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell2_activetran.html

figure 7 19 active transport
Figure 7-19 Active Transport

Molecule to

be carried

Energy

Molecule

being carried

Section 7-3

active transport sodium potassium pump
Active TransportSodium-Potassium Pump

Section 7-3

sodium Potassium pump demo site video

ultimate in cell communication
Ultimate in Cell Communication

Section 7-3

Nerve Cells talking to each other

phagocytosis click on me
Phagocytosis (Click on me)

Phagocytosis Online

video 4

Video 4

Video 4

Active Transport

  • video segment.