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What do you notice about Cuba’s location? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What do you notice about Cuba’s location?. Beginning of Cuba. Originally inhabited by native groups Guanahatabey, Ciboney, and Taíno Columbus spotted Cuba on one of his voyages Most natives died of diseases or from conquest of Spanish Spain colonized Cuba. Beginning of Cuba.

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What do you notice about

Cuba’s location?

Beginning of cuba
Beginning of Cuba

  • Originally inhabited by native groups

    • Guanahatabey, Ciboney, and Taíno

  • Columbus spotted Cuba on one of his voyages

  • Most natives died of diseases or from conquest of Spanish

  • Spain colonized Cuba

Beginning of cuba1
Beginning of Cuba

  • At the beginning of colonization, Cuba was an unimportant island to Spain.

  • Collapse of Haiti, Cuba became a major sugar producer of the world.

  • While most other Latin American nations were breaking away from Spain, Cuba remained loyal due to the prosperity it was experiencing.

Beginning of cuba2
Beginning of Cuba

  • Rivalry between Spaniards and Creoles increased

  • Resulted in Ten Years’ War ( 1868-1878)

    • Failed attempt at independence

  • 1895-1898 Cuba attempted to gain independence again

  • United States gets involved in 1898

    • Strained relations with Spain

    • Becomes known as the Spanish –American War

José Marti (1853–1895) Cuban independence leader and national hero. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain.

Spanish american war
Spanish-American War

  • On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain

    • Occurs after the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898

  • On December 10, 1898, the war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

    • As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire—Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands.

Cuban independence
Cuban Independence

Cubans thinks they’re independent, but I have other plans for them.

  • Cuba is ceded to the United States.

  • United States began a military occupation of Cuba from 1898-1902.

  • In 1902, Cuba becomes independent.

  • But the Platt Amendment keeps the island under the United States’ protection.

Platt Amendment

Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.

The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent government.

Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.

Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

Senator Orville Platt

America s playground
America’s Playground

  • Americans see Cuba as land of opportunity.

  • Land was cheap ( Americans owned 60 % of all rural land by 1920)

    • Sugar industry

  • Tourism bonds the two nations.

    • becomes “American Playground”

    • tourists arrived by the thousands to experience the island’s exotic culture and beautiful beaches, gamble, and visit world-famous nightclubs


  • As tourism increased, prices increased.

  • Most Cubans could not afford basic necessities and lacked education.

  • By the 1950’s, Cubans were exhausted of American interference in their economy and politics.

  • Fidel Castro led a group of rebels against Batista(president/dictator). Because Batista was so unpopular many followed Castro.

  • Castro defeated the Batista government and made himself dictator in 1959.

Fidel Castro as a Young Revolutionary

Castro s cuba
Castro’s Cuba

  • Castro began right away to organize a communist government.

    • Declared all property belonging to Americans now belonged to the government

    • All farms, factories, and businesses owned by Cubans became government property.

    • Arrested supporters of Batista; many spent decades in prison (most were executed).

    • Cubans no right to protest against the government.

    • Cuban newspapers, radio, and television shut down.

      • The government became only source for news.

    • Churches were closed; all church property taken by gov’t

United states reaction
United States’ Reaction

  • The United States breaks off all diplomatic relations with Cuba.

  • Places an embargo on all Cuban goods and restricts Americans from traveling to or from Cuba.

    • No longer can sell their sugar to the U.S.

  • Encourages other countries from trading with Cuba.

  • Not happy having a communist country so close to the United States. (Cuba is only 90 miles from the southern tip of Florida)

Cuba s new ally
Cuba’s New Ally

  • Who becomes Cuba’s new friend?

Soviet Union

  • Why?

  • Soviet Union was the leading communist country.

  • United States and the Soviet Union in a Cold War.

  • How does the Soviet Union help Cuba?

    • Buys Cuba’s sugarcane each year

    • Supplies Cuba with weapons and other goods

    • Helps to educate Cuba’s children and train their military

Bay of pigs
Bay of Pigs

  • United States launches secret attacks to overthrow Castro.

  • In March 1960, President Eisenhower orders CIA to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland

  • President Kennedy continues with the plan.

  • The plan: day before the invasion, planes would attempt to wipe out Castro’s air force, then exiles would land at the beach, and the Cuban people would rise up against Castro and overthrow him.

Bay of pigs1
Bay of Pigs

  • What is the meaning of this political cartoon?

  • Plan failed.

  • Castro and others received wind of this invasion and prevented it.

  • The exiles were killed or imprisoned.

  • United States continued with these secretative attempts to overthrow the Cuban government.

Cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Castro and Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union’s leader) devise a plan to install Soviet missiles and nuclear bombers in Cuba.

  • On October 14, 1962, United States U2 spy planes take a photograph of suspected USSR missiles sites on Cuba

  • How close is Cuba to the United States?

Cuban missile crisis1
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • After meeting several days with his advisors, President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of the island

    • Used the word “quarantine” rather than “blockade”

    • Prevent more Soviet supplies from reaching the island

  • On October 22 in a television broadcast, President Kennedy addresses the nation of the situation

  • This was as close to nuclear war that we came.

  • On October 26, 1962, Khrushchev proposed removing Soviet missiles and personnel if the U.S. would guarantee not to invade Cuba.

Cuban missile crisis2
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Khrushchev said that he would remove the missiles if the U.S. agreed not to attack Cuba and removed its missiles from Turkey

  • Publicly, Kennedy agrees to not attack Cuba, but he only privately agrees to the removal of missiles from Turkey.

Cuba and the united states
Cuba and the United States

  • Hostility between the two countries continued unabated for decades.

  • Collapse of communism in the Soviet Union in 1990’s had a major effect on the Cuba

    • Decrease in exports/imports

    • Standard of living drastically decreases

    • Illegal immigration to the United States increases