Health Informatics Week 1
Module Introduction • COM510 - Health Informatics aims to provide you with a basic understanding of the fundamental aspects of ICT within healthcare. • We will aim to focus on the main driving forces for the adoption of ICT. • We will examine the different areas in which ICT has been applied. • And we focus on specific technologies, such as the internet and mobile computing, and demonstrate how these are improving patient care and patient – clinician interaction. • In semester 2, you will have the opportunity to learn even more about recent, state-of-the-art developments in Health Informatics – Emerging Healthcare Technologies.
Overview • Section 1 • Introduction to health informatics • Need for health informatics • COM510 Overview • Section 2 • History of Technology in Healthcare • Where / How / Who can Healthcare technologies help? • Categories of Healthcare Technologies.
Section 1 - What is Health Informatics? (1) • Health informatics is located at the intersection of information technology (IT) and the different disciplines of medicine and healthcare. • Health Informatics attempts to bridge the gap between information technology (IT) and the various disciplines of medicine and healthcare. • In this module, we shall also (mostly) use the term ‘Medical Informatics’ without entering into the possible fundamental difference between Health Informatics and Medical Informatics. • Has also been referred to as: • Medical Computer Science • Medical Information Science • Computers in Medicine
What is Health Informatics? (2) • The term has been defined as: • the scientific field that deals with resources, devices and formalised methods for optimising the storage, retrieval and management of biomedical information for problem solving and decision making’ (Shortliffe, 1995). • ‘comprising the theoretical and practical aspects of information processing and communication, based on knowledge and experience derived from processes in medicine and healthcare’ (Van Bemmel, 1984).
Practical Meaning (1) • In Health Informatics, we aim to Develop and Assess methods, systems and devices for acquisition processing, and interpretation of patient data using knowledge gained from scientific research.
Practical Meaning (2) • Computers are the ‘vehicles’ used to realise these goals. • In Medical Informatics, we deal with the entire domain of medicine and healthcare • Such as: • Computer based patient records • Image processing • Primary care practices • Hospital healthcare
The Need for Health Informatics (1) • Health Informatics emerged due to multiple problems facing the practice of medicine. • Desire to: • reduce Costs • improve Patient Care • be more efficient with clinicians time • migrate away from traditional paper based records • reduce medication errors • have instant access to patient related data • have instant access to educational information
Reducing Costs! SOURCE: http://www.cambridgeconsultants.com/downloads/Library_presentations/Innovation_Day_2008/healthcare_market.pdf
Changing Demographics (1) • Within the UK, over the last 25 years the percentage of the population aged 65 and over increased from 15 per cent in 1983 to 16 per cent in 2008, an increase of 1.5 million people in this age group. • Over the same period, the percentage of the population aged 16 and under decreased from 21 per cent to 19 per cent. This trend is projected to continue. • By 2033, 23 per cent of the population will be aged 65 and over compared to 18 per cent aged 16 or younger. • The fastest population increase has been in the number of those aged 85 and over, the ’oldest old‘. In 1983, there were just over 600,000 people in the UK aged 85 and over. Since then the numbers have more than doubled reaching 1.3 million in 2008. By 2033 the number of people aged 85 and over is projected to more than double again to reach 3.2 million, and to account for 5 per cent of the total population.
Changing Demographics (2) Population pyramid for the UK 2000 Projected population pyramid for the UK 2025 Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk
Changing Demographics (3) • As a result of these increases in the number of older people, the median age of the UK population is increasing. • Over the past 25 years the median age increased from 35 years in 1983 to 39 in 2008. • It is projected to continue to increase over the next 25 years rising to 40 by 2033. • In 2008 in the UK the median age for women (40 years) was higher than for men (38 years). • This is because, on average, women live longer than men.
Changing Demographics (4) • However, the gender gap has narrowed; in 1983 women and men had median ages of 36 and 33 years respectively, a difference of three years. • The difference in median ages for women and men decreased to two years in 2008. It is projected to remain at this level to 2033. • The ratio of women to men of those aged 65 and over is also falling. In 1983 there were 155 women aged 65 and over for every 100 men of the same age, compared to the current sex ratio of 130 women for every 100 men for this age group. • By 2033 it is projected that the 65 and over sex ratio will have fallen still further to 117 women for every 100 men.
The UK Aging Population http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=949
Introduction Summary • Changing demographics are causing a shift from reactive to preventative healthcare. • IT can play a large role in providing home based support to patients to promote healthy ageing. • IT can be interfaced directly with clinicians • Internet communications • High speed processing power • Voice recognition • Wireless and Mobile technology • Medical Informatics is about providing medical information to healthcare workers, anytime, anywhere to assist in education, productivity, patient safety, quality of care and research.
Module Structure • Lectures – 24 hrs • Monday 9.15 – 11.05am (04F04) • Seminars / Tutorials – 12 hrs • ICT – Monday 11.15 – 12.05pm (17E26) • CS / SE - Tuesday 1.15 – 2.05pm (16D05) • Practical Labs – 22 hrs • ICT – Tuesday 3.15 – 5.05pm (16C26/27) • CS / SE - Friday 2.15 – 4.05pm (16C26/27) • Independent study – > 100 hrs • Including assessment
Rationale (1) • This module is designed to introduce and provide a fundamental understanding of the use of technology in healthcare. • Emphasis is placed upon the use of technology to develop basic solutions for healthcare delivery and management.
Rationale (2) • This shall be realised through understanding how technology is used in domains commonly referred to as: • Health Informatics / Medical Informatics • Telecare • Telehealth • Telemedicine • eHealth • The module shall provide a framework to facilitate the design and development of robust solutions to meet current healthcare needs.
Aims • Provide the opportunity to understand how technology can be applied in healthcare applications. • To understand the need for such technology in healthcare applications. • To investigate how robust solutions can be developed using existing technologies. • To demonstrate examples of how healthcare delivery has been streamlined using technology. • To provide the opportunity to understand common medical devices. • To further develop your ability to work independently and collaboratively with your peers.
Learning Outcomes • Demonstrate sound understanding of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and practices underlying the use of technology for healthcare applications. • Critically evaluate, from a user needs (user-centered) perspective, current approaches to healthcare delivery. • Understand the limitations of technology in healthcare applications. • Demonstrate an understanding of the professional, legal, moral and ethical issues associated with healthcare delivery relevant to the computing industry.
Module Topics • Background and need for the application of technology in healthcare. • Evolution of Healthcare Technologies. • Changing Demographics • The Clinical and Patient Needs • Trends in Patient – Doctor interaction • Ethical Considerations • Medical Data • Introduction to Medical Data • Storing Patient Data (Integrity, Security) • Data Processing • Electronic Patient Records
Module Topics • Infrastructure to Support Care Delivery • Internet and the Web • Mobile Communications • Thin Client and Thick Client models • Standards • Healthcare Technology Solutions and Devices • Patient Monitoring Systems and Mobile Devices • Decision Support • E-services • Systems for Medical Education
Assessment (1) • Three pieces of course are involved. • Contributes 50% of the total marks for the module. • Coursework 1: Learning Log (20%) • Throughout the module (starting Wk1), maintain a weekly learning log of your activities associated with the module. The material should be published online (word press or webCT) and will be assessed on a bi-weekly period. • Logs should contain reports of activities discussed in lecture / tutorial and also practical’s. • Any readings / articles should also be reported in the log. • Logs should also contain reports of assignment progress. • Logs should be a maximum of 400 words, but can be supported with images / figures.
Assessment (2) • Coursework 2: Investigative Study of Existing Healthcare Technologies (40%) • Due 5th November • In Week 7 Students will each be expected to deliver a report which will present the results of their findings following an investigative study. • review current ICT technologies used in the existing online healthcare systems; • Refer to appropriate journal articles; • analyse the advantages of online healthcare systems; • identify the problems or issues of online healthcare systems; • explore one scenario (or disease condition) for an online support system that you are going to implement; and • summarise the trend of online healthcare support systems. • Coursework 3: Design and Development of Matlab based program to study health related data (40%) • Due 3th December • In Week 11, Students will be asked to submit their work. • Details to be confirmed later in the semester.
Examination • 50% of total grade for the module • 3 hour paper containing 6 questions in which there will be an element of choice. • Question 1 is compulsory – worth 40% • Answer 3 of the remaining 5 questions (20% / question) • Therefore, you are required to answer 4 questions!
Reading Lists • Books • Handbook of Medical Informatics, Jan H. van Bemmel et al. • Medical Informatics, Edward H. Shortliffe et al. • Medical Informatics: Practical Guide for the Healthcare Professional 2007, Robert Hoyt MD et al. • Journals • International Journal of Medical Informatics • The Open Medical Informatics Journal • Journal of Medical Internet Research • Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association • Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare • Medical Decision Making • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine • Websites • Open Clinical – Health Informatics Terms • http://www.openclinical.org/healthinformatics.html • Healthcare Technology (Selection of White Papers) • http://www.hctproject.com/welcome.asp • World Health Organisation • www.who.int/ • International Medical Informatics Association • http://www.imia.org/ • HSC in NI • http://www.hscni.net/ • NHS connecting for health • http://www.connectingforhealth.nhs.uk/
Section 2 - Technology in Healthcare (1) • In this module, we will focus on how Technology has been applied within the Healthcare domain with the aims of providing improved healthcare delivery. • Healthcare technologies can be thought of as those technologies providing improved procedures for: • Preventing and Rehabilitating disease • Medical and Surgical procedures • Managing and Protecting information about patients. • Also, about developing new medical devices and equipment to assist with Diagnosis and Treatment.
Technology in Healthcare (2) • What exactly do we mean by the term healthcare? • Healthcare is about clinical trained staff providing information to prevent illness, and offering treatment and management of illnesses with the aims of ensuring both mental and physical wellbeing. • Healthcare provision plays a major role within society and as a result much effort has been focused on developing and improving techniques over the last 100 years. • As such, it is a widely studied topic, not only by those within the medical domain, but by computer scientists and engineers.
History of Technology in Healthcare: Snapshot (1) • 1895 – X-Rays discovered • 1903 – Electrocardiograph invented (ECG) • 1924 – The Electroencephalogram invented (EEG) • 1946 - First general computer (ENIAC) emerges • 1000 sq ft of floor space. Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20011118115154/www.medhelpnet.com/medhist10.html
History of Technology in Healthcare: Snapshot (2) • 1950’s – Computers thought to be potentially useful for healthcare. • In terms of processing information faster than humans. • 1953 – Heart-Lung machine invented • Cardiopulmonary bypass • 1957 – Ultrasound scanning for pregnancy • 1960’s –MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) created to organise the world’s medical literature, • Previously had to reference medical topics using a multi-volume text index called Medicus.
History of Technology in Healthcare: Snapshot (3) • 1967 – CT Scan invented • 1969 – Internet Emerges with the US government project, ARPNET. • 1974 – First MRI scan attempted • 1977 – First MRI examination • 1982 – First artifical heart transplant (JARVIK)
History of Technology in Healthcare: Snapshot (4) • 1982 - IBM developed the first PC • 16 K of memory • 1990 – World Wide Web conceived by Tim Berners-Lee. • The ‘Internet’ quickly became the backbone for digital libraries used by both clinicians and patients. • 1991 – Electronic Patient Records backed by Institute of Medicine. • 1993 – Mosiac, the first web browser launched • 1996 – Palm Pilot appeared on the market • First proper handheld computer.
History of Technology in Healthcare: Snapshot (5) • 2000’s – Human Genome Project completed following 13 years of international collaborative research. • Mapping all of the human genes is regarded as one of the greatest scientific accomplishments in history. • Will still take many years to analyse all of the collected information! • Many feel will lead to a much greater understanding of the human body and how we practice medicine. • 2000’s – Nationwide Infrastructures Supported for managing healthcare through the integration of IT. • Specific Case study examined in this module (NPfIT) • Goal of collecting all distributed patient information and hosting this so as to provide a shared resource for clinicians. • Advantage of removing / eliminating data duplication and providing up to date patient information as multiple sites • Disadvantages of the system being attacked, vulnerable etc.
Evolution of Technology (1) • Technology is rapidly evolving, with many new devices appearing on the market. • Faster processors, increased data storage, high speed (mobile) broadband, high resolution data capture and digital imaging etc… • Typically, devices are becoming smaller, faster and offer more memory for processing and storage. • Tablet PCs, Laptops, Netbooks and Smart Phones / PDA • Nevertheless, these advances are often asynchronous. • i.e. such devices may offer the potential for improved workflow, however, battery life on many of these devices is still unacceptable! • Consider a Tablet PC used for home care visits over an 8 hour shift.
Evolution of Technology (2) • This poses a challenge to IT professionals working in the area of healthcare. • Not only with regards to improving the usability of devices but in sustaining clinical acceptance and adoption of new technologies. • In semester 2, the ‘Emerging Healthcare Technologies’ module will examine recent developments in this area.
Categories of Technology in Healthcare • Widely used terms: • Medical / Health Informatics • Telemedicine • Telehealth • eHealth • Telecare • By the end of this section we should see that although some of these terms refer to similar approaches and services, there are subtle differences. • Indeed in some cases the definition of the various terms may seem contradictory and confusing.
What is Telemedicine? (1) • The term telemedicine refers to the execution of medical practice remotely or the remote use of medical expertise at the point of need. • ‘tele’ derives from the Greek ‘at a distance’ • Although the term has really only been recognised in the past few decades and usually relies on the use of telecommunications its definition would indicate that any exchange of information • e.g. a letter between two doctors back in the 1800’s which discussed a case.
What is Telemedicine? (2) • Telemedicine has largely been dominated by video conferencing. • This can be used, for example: • by two medical professionals at opposite sides of the world to discuss some rare case of a disease. • or can be where a doctor assesses a patient remotely who has no means of transport to the specialist clinic. • Although video conferencing has played a large part in this domain, new techniques are being introduced. • One such new example of telemedicine is the use of robots to conduct surgery remotely.
Telemedicine modes (1) • Real-time telemedicine • could be as simple as a telephone call or as complex as robotic surgery / unmanned surgery. • Requires that both parties are present and that a communications link exists between them. • Telenursing • Telerehabititaion • Teleradiology • Video conferencing, webcam, telephone, internet rich applications
Telemedicine modes (2) • Store-and-forward telemedicine • involves acquiring medical data (medical images, biosignals) and them transmitting this data to a doctor or medical expert at a convenient time for offline assessment. • It does not require the presence of both parties at the same time.