ethics Practical 8
Writing up Discussion • Any Issues - please chat to us during the session
Organise into role players etc • Get 6 student role players (2 from each class) • 6 interviewers (2 from each class) • Move students around lab to even off
Collecting data • How many truth/liars for each person in order • You need to, individually (without conferring), decide the status of each person
break • Each role player to identify whether told truth or lie • Count up the number of accurate judgements. • Have break
Am face = 28.6% body = 37% • Pm face = 70.4% body = 62.7
Ekman & Friesen study • Can you tell lying from behavioural characteristics. • student nurses were used as the role players and another group as judges • Role players were told that not displaying negative emotion is very important for a nurse. • It would be unacceptable to reveal to a patient how one might actually feel as it might upset the patient.
Ekman & Friesen study • The role players were told that it was important for a nurses they should be able to conceal their emotions. • They were told that when taking part in the experiment they should do well, and if not they should leave the course.
Ekman & Friesen • Some of the nurses, who would tell the truth, watched a cartoon film and were video-ed enjoying it. • Another group of nurses watched films of amputations and were asked to pretend they were enjoying it. • The judges watched the video and either saw only the face. or all the body. They didn't hear the commentary.
Ekman & Friesen • It was found that although it is possible to recognise liars by careful analysis of facial expressions, particularly a mismatch of microexpressions • But, the judges were better at recognising liars from their body movements. • Evidence for body leakage!
Ethics discussion • Are there ethical breaches in ekman’s research? • Does it matter what the research is for? • Does it matter that the participants were nurses and that they may professionally have to hide emotions? • Does it matter if students or professional psychologists do the research? • What is acceptable for us to do in our first year practicals? • What sort of research design was adopted in the practical?
Further reading • This can be found at psychunn then Active Practicals then deception
Further reading • A VRIJ, H EVANS, L AKEHURST and S MANN • Appl. Cognit. Psychol. 18: 283–296 (2004) • Rapid Judgements in Assessing Verbal and Nonverbal Cues: Their Potential for Deception Researchers and Lie Detection • Five observers watched 52 videoclips of 26 liars and 26 truth tellers. The findings revealed that rapid judgements were reliable and valid. They also revealed that observers were able to detect truths and lies well above the level of chance after making these rapid judgements (74% accuracy rate was found)
Definitions of the 12 variablesfor rapid judgements • Latency period: • hand and finger movements: • speech hesitations: • quantity of details: • contextual embeddings: • reproduction of conversation: • description of other’s mental state: • visual details: • auditory details: • spatial information: • temporal details: • cognitive operations: