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POLITICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY. Problem. Importance of Energy; Two main energy sources; Renewable Sources Non-renewable Sources Problems of Energy Pollution Population Problem Reserve Problem Sustainable Development . Energy.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Importance of Energy;
  • Two main energy sources;
    • Renewable Sources
    • Non-renewable Sources
  • Problems of Energy
    • Pollution
    • Population Problem
    • Reserve Problem
    • Sustainable Development
  • Energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts. It affects all aspects of development -- social, economic, and environmental -- including livelihoods, access to water, agricultural productivity, health, population levels, education, and gender-related issues.
  • Ref: http://www.undp.org/energy/
politics of energy
Politics of Energy

Politics of Renewable Energy



  • Solving the energy crisis is going to take a lot of social action combined with government support.
  • Rising energy costs are finally starting to force global leaders to research alternatives and provide the funding to make changes.
  • Issues like global warming are becoming mainstream reality and causing worldwide concerns about pollution and consumption.
  • Ref: (http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/politics/)

Ref: http://www.ecclectica.ca/issues/2005/3/index.asp?Article=13

national politics of renewable energy
  • The Case of;
    • USA
    • Europe
      • Germany
    • Asia
      • India
      • China
      • Japan
u s state and federal policies for renewable energy
U.S. State and Federal Policies for Renewable Energy
  • Tax incentives have provided a key form of direct subsidy to renewable energy and energy efficiency in the U.S. at both the state and Federal levels.
  • These incentives can take several forms, including deductions from taxable income or a credit against tax liability.
  • Ref: Christopher Namovicz – Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable energy
policies in europe
Policies in Europe
  • The situation of energy supply in Europe is highly dependent on the import of energy products.
  • Today more than 50% of its requirements have to be imported. If the present trends continue, this figure will increase to about 70% in 2030, with a growing dependency on oil and gas imports.
  • In 1999, the cost of energy imports was more than V240 billion Euro for the European Union (EU-15), or about 6% of its total imports and 1.2% of its gross domestic product.
  • These figures show that the European Union has a vital interest in reducing its degree of dependence on energy imports, and on the other hand to improve the development and increase the share of domestic and sustainable energy resources
  • Ref: Michael Durstewitz– Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable energy
the case of germany
The Case of Germany
  • Similar to many other European countries, the energy situation in Germany is dominated by the lack of significant fossil resources, oil and gas.
  • The exploitation of domestic mineral coal is decreasing continuously in recent decades and mines which are still in operation receive billions of Euros fiscal support in order to survive against low priced coal on the world market.
  • In some regions in Germany, lignite is exploited, mostly used for the firing of thermal power plants.
  • The geographic and climatic conditions in Germany for the use of renewable energy sources cannot be considered to be optimal. In comparison with other European regions, U.K., Ireland, France, and Denmark, the wind potential of Germany is only moderate, except for sites close to Germany’s coastlines.

In total, 5.1% or 131 TWh of Germany’s end energy supply for electricity, heat, and transportation was provided with renewable energy sources.

  • The structure of different energy sources for the supply with renewable energies is shown in Figure 2.2.

FIGURE 2.3 Total and share of wind energy to reduction of CO2 emissions in Germany. (From Durstewitz, et al., Wind Energy Report Germany, 2005, ISET, Germany, 2005.)

energy conservation and renewable energy in india
Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India
  • Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s.
  • Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy.
  • Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available.
  • There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development.
renewable energy use in india
Renewable Energy Use in India
  • In the light of global developments, India has taken the decisive policy steps to move ahead and tap the immense potential for renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro, etc., and build the necessary skills and manpower to favourably use these resources.
  • Ref: Anil Mirsa – Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable energy

Renewable energy devices and systems have become increasingly more visible during the last two decades, and power generation from renewable sources is also increasing.

  • The estimated potential and the extent of exploitation so far are given in Table 2.4, and efforts have been stepped up to achieve the full potential of the use of renewable energy sources.
renewable energy policies for china
Renewable Energy Policies for China
  • China has long been a world leader in renewable energy development and utilization, especially decentralized small-scale renewable energy technologies, such as small hydropower, solar water heaters, biogas digesters, and small wind turbines.
  • Today, China is becoming a leader in sophisticated, high technology renewables, like PV, and is positioning itself for significant growth in other sectors, such as utility-scale wind power, bio power, and bio fuels.
  • Ref: Debra Lew – Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable energy

China recently announced an increase in their renewable energy share (including large hydro) of primary energy (excluding traditional biomass) from 7 to 15% by 2020.

  • Realizing this target would require an estimated 130 GWof renewable energy capacity with an investment of up to US$184 billion.
  • China has multiple drivers for renewable energy development and utilization: energy diversification, energy security, environmental issues, and sustainable development.
  • China also seeks to be a leading manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and actively supports domestic manufacturing.
japanese policies on energy conversation and renewable energy
Japanese Policies on Energy Conversationand Renewable Energy
  • The current basic energy policy in Japan aims at both achieving a stable energy supply and preserving the environment.
  • Even though Japan has achieved considerable success in energy conservation during the last two oil crises, the country’s total energy demand has continued to increase.
  • This is especially true for energy consumption in the residential/commercial and transportation sectors which has increased significantly since 1990.
  • To realize further development in the future, it is essential to secure additional energy supplies; however, we must also reduce CO2 emissions to prevent global warming. As the chair country of the Kyoto Conference on Climate Change (COP3), Japan is strongly committed to achieve the target of Kyoto Protocol.
  • Ref: Koichi Sakuta – Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable energy

Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry

  • In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted—which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, biomass thermal energy, biomass fuel production, cool energy of snow and ice, clean energy vehicles, natural gas cogeneration, and fuel cells.

METI’s current policy for new energy can be summarized as:

a. Law concerning the development and promotion of Oil Alternative Energy (Alternative Energy Law).

b. Long-term energy supply/demand outlook.

c. Enactment of “Law Concerning Special Measures for Promotion of New Energy Use, etc., (New Energy Law)” enacted in April 1997.

d. Government support system for the domestic introduction of new energy.

    • Technological development;
    • Validation tests;
    • Implementation promotion;

e. Promotion of international cooperation related to new energy.

international politics of renewable energy
  • European Union Renewable Energy Policies
  • United Nations Renewable Energy Policies
eu renewable energy policy
EU Renewable Energy Policy
  • European leaders signed up in March 2007 to a binding EU-wide target to source 20% of their energy needs from renewables such as biomass, hydro, wind and solar power by 2020. 
  • On 23 January 2008, the Commission put forward differentiated targets for each EU member state, based on the per capita GDP of each country.
past eu policy developments include
Past EU policy developments include:
  • 1997: Commission White Paper 'Energy for the future: renewable sources of energy - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan' , sets EU target of increasing the share of renewable energy to 12 per cent of total energy consumption by 2010. 
  • 2001: EU adopts the Directive on the Promotion of Electricity produced from Renewable Energy Sources ('Renewables or 'RES-E" Directive'). The directive sets an EU-wide target of 21% of renewables share in electricity production by 2010.
  • 2003: EU adopts the Biofuels Directive  setting "reference values" of 2% market share for biofuels in 2005 and 5.75% share in 2010.
  • 2006: European Parliament calls for 25% target for renewables in EU's energy consumption by 2020.
  • 2007: Commission presents "Renewable Energy Roadmap " as part of its "energy-climate change" package.  
member states targets
Member states' targets
  • On 23 January 2008, the Commission put forward a proposal for a new Directive on renewable energies to replace the existing measures adopted in 2001. EU governments and the European Parliament reached a broad agreement on the proposal on 9 December 2008, which was then adopted by the Parliament in a plenary vote on 17 December (EurActiv09/12/08).
  • According to the text, each member state should increase its use of renewable energies - such as solar, wind or hydro - in a bid to boost the EU's share from 8.5% of the bloc's energy mix today to 20% by 2020. A 10% use of 'green fuels' in transport is also included within the overall EU objective (EurActiv05/12/08).
  • To achieve the targets, every nation in the 27-member bloc is required to increase its share of renewables by 5.5% from 2005 levels, with the remaining increase calculated on the basis of per capita gross domestic product (GDP):


the eu commission
The EU Commission
  • White Paper ‘Energy for the Future: renewable sources of energy’ of November 1997 has also since affirmed that ‘a comprehensive strategy has become essential’ requiring ‘across-the-board initiatives encompassing a wide range of policies: energy, environment, employment, taxation, competition, research, technological development and demonstration, agriculture, regional and external relations policies’.

One encouraging sign, for instance, is the rapid expansion of wind power in Denmark and Germany in only a few years, or the electrification of a growing number of villages in developing countries using solar power.

  • Numerous new solar technology firms have been founded, and some of the established energy providers are beginning to enter the field.
  • Despite the continuing neglect of renewable energy by publicly funded research and development programmes, new technological developments are now debunking the pessimistic prognoses of past decades for the potential of solar resources.
  • Ref: Hermann Scheer - THE SOLAR ECONOMY Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Global Future

The European Commission (EC) White Paper on Renewable Energy Sources sets out a comprehensive strategy and action plan to achieve the ambitious goal of doubling the renewables’ share of the European Union’s total energy supply, from 6 per cent to 12 per cent, by 2010.

  • The strategy’s main features are:

The reinforcement of policies, such as agricultural and rural policy, regional policy, and internal market measures in the regulatory and fiscal areas, affecting market penetration of renewables.

The strengthening of co-operation between EU member states along with measures to facilitate investment and information dissemination. This is crucial to the security and diversification of energy supply in the future, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion.

estimated contributions to eu energy supply in 2010
Estimated contributions to EU energy supply in 2010


un renewable energy policy
UN Renewable Energy Policy
  • New and renewable sources of energy have received a great deal of attention since the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.
  • Solar, wind, and hydroelectric power not only produce minimal carbon emissions once generating systems are in place, they also help reduce poverty through improved energy access in underserved areas. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for five percent of global energy supply.
  • Though the use of renewables is increasing faster than any other resource stream, widespread adoption is constrained by a multitude of policy, regulatory and financial barriers. Support for research and development, market incentives, and energy prices that fully reflect environmental and social costs may all contribute to take-up.
  • One such initiative is the Clean Development Mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol, which provides financing for the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in developing countries.
  • Ref: http://www.un.org/esa/desa/climatechange/renewableenergy.html

A report commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) says that renewable energy is making a difference in the fight against global warming and that we need more of it. In fact, renewable energy is the best way to cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  • At least 56 nations have policies that promote renewable energy and 44 countries, states, and provinces have requirements that a certain portion of their energy must come from renewable sources.
  • All told, the Renewables 2007: Global Status Report found that renewable energy continued its double-digit growth in 2007 and that more than 5 gigatons (5 billion tons) of CO2 were avoided. By the end of this year, investment in wind power, solar power, and other technologies should surpass $100 billion.
  • Wind power receives the largest share of that investment, beating out large hydropower.

Unlike the promises of future technologies like “cleaner” coal or mainstream carbon sequestration, renewable energy is the best option to mitigate global warming because it is here, now, and making an impact.

  • The UNEP reports that the costs of renewable energy will continue to decline and that the clean energy sector is an avenue to economic development, energy security, local environmental benefits, and a global warming solution.
  • Ref: http://sustainablog.org/2007/12/11/un-report-renewable-energy-best-way-to-cut-emissions/
un increased investments in alternative energy
UN: Increased Investments In Alternative Energy
  • The U.N. calls it a "green energy gold rush." Global investors plowed 148 billion dollars into new wind, solar and other alternative energy assets last year.
  • That's 60 percent above the 92.6 billion dollars spent on such projects in 2006.
  • Ref: http://www.wndu.com/green/headlines/22804934.html
news about the renewable energy
  • Los Angeles to Stop Using Coal by 2020
  • The mayor of Los Angeles declared that from 2020 onwards Los Angeles will completely eliminate the use of power generated by burning coal and go for alternative energy sources such as wind and sun. In his inaugural speech for his second four-year term as mayor he said, "LADWP will deliver 40 percent renewable power, with the remainder coming from natural gas, nuclear, and large hydroelectric."
unep to help green the sochi 2014 olympics
UNEP To Help Green The Sochi 2014 Olympics
  • We have seen many Olympic Games but didn’t bother to check about the green quotient of the games, till now. What is most talked about is always the performance of the athletes. But slowly the scenario is changing. People are becoming aware of the green factor of the games and United Nations is taking active interest in making the games clean and green.
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Russian Olympic organizers. According to this MOU, UNEP will help and advise them on making the Sochi Olympic Games environmentally friendly. Sochi Olympics will be held in 2014.
  • There is more need to pay attention to Sochi and its flora, fauna and environment because Sochi is situated between the gentle shores of the Black Sea and the snow-capped Caucasus Mountains in Russia's Krasnodar Region and is renowned for its pristine setting.
obama stresses clean energy on earth day
Obama Stresses Clean Energy on Earth Day
  • President Barack Obama is known as a staunch supporter of green energy. His stimulus plan has raised new hope for the environmentalists and economists alike. On the occasion of Earth Day, President Obama declared that developing renewable energy is crucial to America's prosperity.
  • He also declared that his administration will for the first time lease federal waters for projects to generate electricity from wind as well as from ocean currents and other renewable sources. Obama also emphasized the need for action on global warming and preserving vast and beautiful natural resources of USA.
alternative energy investors optimistic
Alternative Energy Investors Optimistic
  • Last year many alternative energy investors suffered huge losses when several prominent stocks fell by 70% or more. But they have not lost hope in alternative energy stocks and their future.
  • According to a new survey investors are pinning their hopes on alternative energy industry this year.
  • Waggener Edstrom Worldwide report states that investors and analysts participating in the survey anticipate alternative energy stocks to surpass the broader markets. "Despite a deeply challenging business climate, the financial community continues to view alternative energy stocks with measured optimism," Lev Janashvili, vice president of Waggener Edstrom’s global corporate communications practice, said.
future perspectives for renewable energy in india
Future Perspectives for Renewable Energy in India
  • India is facing an acute energy scarcity which is hampering its industrial growth and economic progress. Setting up of new power plants is inevitably dependent on import of highly volatile fossil fuels.
  • Thus, it is essential to tackle the energy crisis through judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy.
  • Apart from augmenting the energy supply, renewable resources will help India in mitigating climate change. India is heavily dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs. Most of the power generation is carried out by coal and mineral oil-based power plants which contribute heavily to greenhouse gases emission.
clean development mechanism cdm
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), is a mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol for promoting technology transfer and investment from industrialized countries to the developing world for projects focused on mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases.
  • It provides for industrialized countries to invest in emission-reducing projects in developing countries and to use the resulting Certified Emissions Reductions (CER) credits towards their own compliance with the emission limitation targets set forth by the Kyoto Protocol.
african solar could power all of europe
African Solar Could Power all of Europe
  • Mediterranean Union was launched by the French President Nicolas Sarkozy in concurrence with the European Union.
  • This new international organization will include sixteen non-EU states from around the Mediterranean and all the twenty seven EU countries will be its member too.
  • But why are we discussing political unions in an alternative energy site? Because Mediterranean Union will not only tackle various issues such as regional upheavals, trade, counter terrorism, security immigration pollution etc. but the organization will take up the energy issue too.
oil companies promote alternative energy
Oil Companies Promote Alternative Energy
  • I was watching the television on Saturday night and would you believe there was a commercial about alternative energy? I was amazed.
  • Alternative energy education right at home in my living room! As I sat there on the couch staring at what I believed was most likely the next neo-liberal campaign for conservatism, and not a truly educational 30-second bit, I was surprised by the ending comment and commercial sponsor: Chevron. Yes, one of the biggest names in fossil fuels is talking about anything but!
washington d c
Washington, D.C.
  • The renewable energy industry is stepping up its meteoric rise into the mainstream of the energy sector, according to the REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report. Renewable energy production capacities are growing rapidly as a result of more countries enacting far-reaching policies.
  • Ref:http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=528&ArticleID=5754&l=en
  • Renewable Energy Sources
    • Effectiveness of National and International Energy Politics.