Nursing Theorists: Watson & Newman. Lindsay Parker Kimberly Wright Marissa Zingaro Sacred Heart University. Abstract. Looking at two well known nursing theorists: Jean Watson and Margaret Newman Examining their theories and concepts Analyzing each theorist’s model of care
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Nursing Theorists: Watson & Newman Lindsay Parker Kimberly Wright Marissa Zingaro Sacred Heart University
Abstract • Looking at two well known nursing theorists: Jean Watson and Margaret Newman • Examining their theories and concepts • Analyzing each theorist’s model of care • Applying each theorist’s model in current practice
Jean Watson Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring
Background • Was born in West Virginia • Attended Lewis Gale School of Nursing in Roanoke, VA • Received her BSN in 1964, MS in 1966, and PhD in 1973 all from the University of Colorado. • Her master’s degree is in psychiatric-mental health nursing. • Her doctorate is in educational psychology and counseling (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 174)
Background • She is the former Dean of the School of Nursing at the University of Colorado. • Distinguished Professor of Nursing and Chair in Caring Science at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (founder). • Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. • “Her theory is one of the newest of nursing’s grand theories, having only been completely codified in 1979, revised in 1985, and broadened and advanced more recently” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 174)
Theory Description • “Watson called her earlier work a descriptive theory of caring and stated that it was the only theory of nursing to incorporate the spiritual dimension of nursing at the time it was first conceptualized” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 174). • “The value system that permeates Watson’s (1988, 2008) theory of human caring includes a “deep respect for the wonders and mysteries of life” (1988, p.34) and recognition that spiritual and ethical dimensions are major elements of the human care process” (McEwen and Wills, 2011 p. 175). • “Caring science encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation to human caring processes, phenomena and experiences. Caring science includes arts and humanities as well as science” (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2007).. • “Watson’s concepts came from nursing: Nightingale and Rogers, Psychologists: Giorgi, Johnson, and Koch, and philosophy” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 175). • “The model has been implemented at the University of Colorado in education and clinical practice. Also, Georgia Southern University taught undergraduate and nurse practitioner courses from the human caring philosophy” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 177).
Meta-paradigmal Concepts 1. Human being- A valued person to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood, and assisted. 2. Health- Unity and harmony within the mind, body, and soul; health is associated with the degree of congruence between the self as perceived and the self as experienced. 3. Nursing- A human science of persons and human health—illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 176, Table 8-8) 4. Environment- “According to Watson, caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment” (Nursing Theories, 2012)
Other Concepts • Actual caring occasion- “Involves actions and choices by the nurse and the individual. The moment of coming together in a caring occasion presents the two persons with the opportunity to decide how to be in the relationship—what to do with the moment” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 176). • Transpersonal- “An intersubjective human-to-human relationship in which the nurse affects and is affected by the person of the other. Both are fully present in the moment and feel a union with the other; they share a phenomenal field that becomes part of the life history of both” (McEwen and Wills, 2011p. 176). • Phenomenal field- “The totality of human experience of one’s being in the world. This refers to the individual’s frame of reference that can only be known to that person” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 176). • Self- “The organized conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of the “I” or “ME” and the perceptions of the relationship of the “I” or “ME” to others and to various aspects of life” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 176). • Time- “The present is more subjectively real and the past is more objectively real. The past is prior to, or in a different mode of being than the present, but it is not clearly distinguishable. Past, present, and future incidents merge and fuse” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p.176).
The seven major assumptions • Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally. • Caring consists of curative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs. • Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth. • Caring responses accept person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become. • A caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time. • Caring is more “ healthogenic” than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing. • The practice of caring is central to nursing. (Nursing Theories, 2012)
Ten Caritas Processes • Embrace altruistic values and practice loving kindness with self and others. • Instill faith and hope and honor others. • Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices. • Develop helping – trusting- caring relationships. • Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen to another’s story. • Use creative scientific problem-solving methods for caring decision making. • Share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and comprehension styles. • Create a healing environment for the physical and spiritual self which respects human dignity. • Assist with basic physical, emotional, and spiritual human needs. • Open to mystery and allow miracles to enter. (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2007)
Theory Analysis • A logical theory that examines caring, spirituality and human and energy fields (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p.176). • The theory contains many characteristics of a human interaction model (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 174). • Incorporates principles from the unitary process theories (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 174).
Relationships of the Theory • “A transpersonal caring field resides within a unitary field of consciousness and energy that transcends time, space, and physicality” (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p. 176) • “The practitioner’s authentic intentionality and consciousness of caring has a higher frequency of energy than a noncaring consciousness (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p. 177) • “Caring-healing modalities are often noninvasive, nonintrusive, natural-human, energetic environmental field modalities” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p.177)
A Useful Theory • Can be applied to a variety of settings • Examples: • A researcher used the model in caring for morbidly obese individuals • Individuals who have HIV, Wounded warriors, Older Adults (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p.177)
Testability • Allows quantitative and qualitative research methods (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p. 177) • Science of caring is researched by numerous nurses in recent years (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p.177) • Researchers have tested the theory to explore “hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of life in hospitalized patients” (McEwen and Wills, 2011, p.177)
Theory Evaluation • “…nursing is the art and science of human care; nurses engage in transpersonal caring transactions to assist person to achieve mind-body-soul harmony” (DeNisco & Barker, 2013, p. 368). • Faith is an integral part of the healing process • Working in a faith based healthcare facility allows the nurse to make a deeper connection with patients
Theory Evaluation (cont.) • Nursing “focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease” (Nursing Theories, 2012). • As a masters-prepared nurse, one can use Watson’s theory to educate others in the healthcare field. • “When (nursing) students perceive the climate of nursing education as caring, they learn a professional way of being” (Wade & Kasper, 2006, p.162).
Advanced Practice Application • “Caring experiences may lead to enhanced clinical judgment, increased skills and knowledge, mobilization of caring abilities, enhanced empathy, and a love of nursing” (Wade & Kasper, 2006, p. 163).
References DeNisco, S., & Barker, A. (2013). Advanced Practice Nursing: Evolving Roles for the Transformation of the Profession (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Hayes, M. & Jones, D. (2007). Health as Expanding Consciousness: Pattern Recognition and Incarcerated Mothers, a Transforming Experience. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 3(2), p.61-66. McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2011). Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Nursing Theories, (2012). Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html
References (cont.) Nursing Theories, (2012). Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Newman_Health_As_Expanding_Consciousness.html Pilkington, F., (2007), Envisioning Nursing in 2050 Through the Eyes of Nurse Theorists: Katie Eriksson and Margaret Newman. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20 (3), p. 200. doi: 10.1177/0894318407303099. Predeger, E., & Mumma, C., (2004). Connectedness in Chronic Illness: Women’s Journeys. International Journal for Human Caring, 8(1), p. 13-19.
References (cont.) Wade , G. & Kasper, N. (2006). Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Instructor Caring: An Instrument Based on Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(5), 162-168. Watson Caring Science Institute. (2007). Caring Science. Retrieved from http://watsoncaringscience.org/about-us/caring-science-definitions-processes-theory/# Weingourt, R., (1998). Using Margaret A. Newman's Theory of Health with Elderly Nursing Home Residents. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care,34(3), p. 25-30.