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Chapter Two. Origins of American Government. Basic Concepts of Government. Early Units of Government/Offices Most of the earliest units of government are still with us today Sheriff, Coroner, Assessor, JP, grand jury, counties, townships Also had belief in a limited government

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chapter two

Chapter Two

Origins of American Government

basic concepts of government
Basic Concepts of Government
  • Early Units of Government/Offices
    • Most of the earliest units of government are still with us today
      • Sheriff, Coroner, Assessor, JP, grand jury, counties, townships
      • Also had belief in a limited government
        • Individual has certain rights that gov’t cannot take away
basic concepts of government1
Basic Concepts of Government
  • Representative Government
    • Government should serve the will of the people
    • Gov’t of, by, and for the people
landmark english documents
Landmark English Documents
  • Three Important documents
    • These documents molded the minds of the people responsible for the formation of our government
      • The Magna Carta
      • The Petition of the Right
      • The English Bill of Rights
landmark english documents1
Landmark English Documents
  • The Magna Carta (The Great Charter)
    • Signed by King John after being forced to do so in 1215
    • Seeking protection of heavy-handed and arbitrary acts of the king
    • Included fundamental rights such as:
      • Taking of life, liberty, or property
      • Unfair taxes
      • Excessive military campaigns
        • Originally only for the nobles, but over time, became standard for everyone.
landmark english documents2
Landmark English Documents
  • The Petition of Right
    • Overtime, Magna Carta was replaced by other Monarchs (400 years)
    • Parliament grew stronger – Representative body that had power to make laws
    • 1628 – King Charles I asked Parliament to raise taxes
      • Refused
      • Forced king to sign petition of Right
        • Limited the Kings power
          • Could no longer issue punishment ir imprison others without consent lawfully of his peers
landmark english documents3
Landmark English Documents
  • The Petition of Right
    • Also insisted that king could not impose martial law – Rule by the military in time of peace
    • Could not force homeowners to shelter troops without consent
    • No taxes without parliament approval
    • Challenged idea of divine right – monarch must obey law of the land
landmark english documents4
Landmark English Documents
  • The English Bill of Rights
    • 1689
    • Included
      • No standing army in peacetime
      • Parliamentary elections be free
      • No laws without parliamentary consent
      • No money usage by crown without consent of parliament
      • People can petition the king without fear of prosecution
      • Right to a fair trial
      • No excessive bail or cruel/unusual punishment
the english colonies
The English Colonies
  • Three different kinds of colonies
    • Each colony had to have a Charter issued to become a colony
    • Led to the development of three types of colonies
    • Included
      • Royal Colonies – Under direct rule of crown
        • New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia
      • Proprietary Colonies – Person granted a piece of land
        • Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware
      • Charter Colonies – Charters granted to colonists, self governing
        • Connecticut and Rhode Island
the coming of independence
The Coming of Independence
  • Discuss – What was England’s interest in colonization in the first place?
    • Turn and talk to your group
    • Come up with at least three reasons
the coming of independence1
The Coming of Independence
  • The Stamp Act Congress
    • Colonies/colonist’s were taxed heavily
    • Passed in 1765
    • Taxed everything from legal documents, business agreements, to newspapers
    • Colonists view was that this was taxation without representation
    • October 1765, all but four colonies sent reps to the Stamp Act Congress in New York
    • Prepared a Declaration of Rights and Grievances
    • Parliament repealed the Stamp Act
    • But stage was set…….
the coming of independence2
The Coming of Independence
  • First Continental Congress
    • Prompted by new laws/taxes – Mostly from the actions of the colonists…Boston Tea Party
    • Called the Intolerable Acts
    • Declaration of Rights
      • Sent to the King
      • Protested the unfair taxes
      • Took two months to create
      • Urged colonies to refuse trade with England
the coming of independence3
The Coming of Independence
  • Second Continental Congress
    • May 10, 1775
    • Britain was not complying
    • Even tighter restrictions
    • Fighting had begun though in Lexington and Concord
    • Basically became our nations first government
      • Continental army was created – George Washington
      • John Hancock President of Congress
      • Britain looked at it as treason
      • Lasted five years through the Articles of Confederation
the coming of independence4
The Coming of Independence
  • The Declaration of Independence
    • Committee was formed to prepare a document of Independence
    • Actually Richard Henry Lee’s idea - Resolution
    • Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson
the coming of independence6
The Coming of Independence
  • The Declaration of Independence
    • Adopted on July 4th, 1776
    • Proclaimed the existence of a new nation
    • With these brave words, the United States of America was born
    • 13 colonies became free and independent states
state constitutions
State Constitutions
  • Each state now had to replace their charters with a constitution
  • New Hampshire was the first – January, 1776
  • Common features
    • Popular sovereignty –
    • Limited Government –
    • Civil Rights and Liberties –
    • Separation of Powers/Checks and balances -
state constitutions1
State Constitutions
  • Working in your groups….
    • You will define what the meaning of each of the four common features of state constitutions from previous slide
    • Put all information in your notes.
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • Proposed by Richard Henry Lee who called for a “plan of confederation.”
  • Deliberated for 17 months
  • November 15, 1777 – Articles of Confederation approved by Second Continental Congress.
  • Ratified by 11 states within a year
    • Delaware – 1789
    • Maryland - 1781
articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation
  • Breaking down the Articles…
    • Government Structure
      • A unicameral congress
        • Delegates chosen by states (however they saw fit)
        • Each state had one vote in congress
      • No executive or judicial branch
        • Handled by committees in congress
      • Congress would choose one of its members as president (presiding officer)
      • All civil positions appointed by congress
articles of confederation2
Articles of Confederation
  • Breaking down the Articles…
      • Powers of Congress
        • Could make war and peace
        • Send and receive ambassadors
        • Make treaties
        • Borrow money
        • Establish money system
        • Build a navy
        • Raise an army – ask states for troops
        • Standard weights and measures
        • Settle disputes among states
articles of confederation3
Articles of Confederation
  • Breaking down the Articles…
    • State obligations
      • Had to obey Articles
      • Provide funds and troops requested by congress
      • Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally
      • Surrender fugitives from justice to one another
      • Submit disputes to congress for settlement
      • Allow open travel and trade among the states
      • Responsible for protecting life and property
articles of confederation4
Articles of Confederation
  • Breaking down the Articles…
    • Weaknesses
      • Congress did not have power to tax
      • Had to borrow or ask states!!!!
      • Could not regulate trade between states
      • Lack of power to make states obey Articles
        • 9 of 13 states had to agree
      • Difficult to amend articles
        • All 13 states had to agree
articles of confederation5
Articles of Confederation
  • Need for a stronger government
    • Why?
    • Who was responsible for this demand?
creating the constitution
Creating the Constitution
  • The Framers (Delegates)
    • Constitutional Convention – May, 1787 - Philadelphia
      • 12/13 States represented – No Rhode Island delegates
      • Most were very prestigious men
      • Average age – 42, many in their 30’s
      • Real leaders
        • James Madison – 36
        • Gouverneur Morris – 35
        • Edmund Randolph – 34
        • Alexander Hamilton – 32
        • Benjamin Franklin – 81 – oldest
        • George Washington - 55
creating the constitution1
Creating the Constitution
  • Differing plans for the Constitution
    • The Virginia Plan
    • The New Jersey Plan
  • Compromises
    • The Connecticut Compromise
    • The Three-Fifths Compromise
    • The commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
    • In your groups, complete the chart for the different plans and compromises that were presented to the Second Continental Congress