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Exposure and Health Assessment of Agricultural Field Burning Smoke – a Study Progress Report. L.-J. S. Liu, T. Gould, D. Kalman, J. Kaufman, C. Marquist, J. Sullivan, C. Trenga, University of Washington C. Claiborn , R. Dhammapala, J. Jimenez Washington State University

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exposure and health assessment of agricultural field burning smoke a study progress report

Exposure and Health Assessmentof Agricultural Field Burning Smoke – a Study Progress Report

L.-J. S. Liu, T. Gould, D. Kalman, J. Kaufman, C. Marquist, J. Sullivan, C. Trenga, University of Washington

C. Claiborn, R. Dhammapala, J. Jimenez

Washington State University

For Pullman Town Meeting (Sept 3, 2003)

slide2

of

Potential air quality impacts most likely occur at the confluence of these conditions!

some terminology
Some Terminology
  • PM10 = particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers in “aerodynamic diameter”
  • PM2.5 = PM smaller than 2.5 micrometers in AD
  • Fine PM ~ PM2.5 (mainly combustion)
  • Coarse PM ~ PM10 – PM2.5 (mainly mineral dust)
  • Dust in the air may be from ~1 to 100 micrometers
what are the impacts of field burning in washington state
What are the Impacts of Field Burning in Washington State?

It has been difficult to quantify the air

quality impacts in the rural areas of E. WA

  • Spatial variability
  • Short-term PM spikes (both PM10 and PM2.5)
  • Paucity of continuous monitors
  • Small populations

This is the first study to measure personal exposures to smoke from agricultural burning

issues
Issues
  • Community exposure vs. ambient concentrations
  • Health effects of peak exposures
  • Regulations based upon annual and 24-hr averages
  • Air monitoring strategy must address all these issues!
what is personal exposure
What is personal exposure?
  • Outdoor concentrations
  • Indoor concentrations
  • “Personal Cloud”
  • Can be measured directly or estimated from time-activity diaries coupled with outdoor and indoor monitoring at homes
a burning question
A Burning Question

Are episodes of increased particulate matter air pollution from agricultural burning associated with health effects in asthmatics, as measured by:

  • Decrement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)?
  • Increase in exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)?
  • Increase in asthmatic symptoms and/or use of rescue medications?
objectives
Objectives
  • Characterize the air quality impacts from agricultural field burning in Eastern WA
  • Characterize community exposure to agricultural smoke
  • Determine the relationship(s), if any, between particulate air pollution from Ag burning and acute adverse health outcomes in asthmatic adults
study location
Study Location
  • Washington State University community, Pullman
    • Population density
    • Impacted by wheat burning in WA and grass burning in Idaho
    • Historical data
    • Infrastructure
slide10

Population Density

WASHINGTON

Spokane – Coeur d’Alene

IDAHO

Pullman - Moscow

Tri-Cities

Moses Lake

Eastern WA

study population
Study Population
  • 32 adults, male or female, aged 18-65, in the WSU community, Pullman, WA.
  • Physician-diagnosed mild to moderate asthma
  • With or without inhaled corticosteroid use, but prefer those without
  • Sample size was determined based on power simulations
  • Many concerns for using children subjects – focus was thus on adults
study period
Study Period
  • ~60-day period, between Sept 3 and Nov 1, 2002
  • 2 monitoring sessions, each session consisting of 32 subjects and 30 days of monitoring period.
  • 32 subjects: 16 Active and 16 on-call
    • Those 16 subjects who are active in session 1 become on-call in session 2.
    • Vice versa
health effect assessment
Health Effect Assessment

Active subjects – 3 lab visits/week

  • Pulmonary function (Micro DL)
  • Breath samples for CO, eNO
  • PFT: 4 X/day, 7d/wk: upon awakening, before lunch, before dinner, before retiring
  • Symptom/medication and time-activity diaries

On-call subjects – 3 lab visits/episode

  • 3 consecutive-day lab visits (eNO, CO, PFT, urine samples) during an episode
  • Daily self-administered PFT, sym/med, and TAD
exhaled nitric oxide
Exhaled Nitric Oxide
  • Non-invasive measure of pulmonary inflammation which increases with asthma exacerbation.
    • More sensitive in detecting worsening asthma control than standard pulmonary function measures [Spirometry].
exposure assessment
Exposure Assessment

Central Site Monitoring on WSU campus (rooftop)

  • 12-hr PM2.5 samples on quartz, Teflon filters with HI
  • 24-hr aldehydes with DNPH coated Sep-Paks
  • Real-time Bsp via nephelometer (measure of fine PM)
  • “Continuous” (half-hour) PM2.5 and PM10 via TEOMs
  • Continuous CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, T, and RH
exposure assessment1
Exposure Assessment

Outdoor Monitoring

  • Topologic considerations
  • 2 nephelometer sites (including DOE site) (indirect measure of fine PM)
  • 6 24-h PM2.5 samples via HPEMs during episodes
exposure assessment continued
Exposure Assessment - continued
  • Indoor Monitoring
    • Real-time T, RH
    • 1 nephelometer or pDR at (nearly) each home (indirect measure of fine PM)
    • Recursive modeling for outdoor contribution to indoor PM
slide25

Exposure Assessment - continued

  • Indoor Monitoring
    • Real-time PM, 1 nephelometer or pDR at (nearly) each home
    • Recursive modeling for outdoor contribution to indoor PM
  • Time-activity diary
    • From every subject everyday, 10-min resolution
    • For estimating exposures to ambient originated PM
slide26

Exposure Assessment - continued

  • Indoor Monitoring
    • Real-time PM, 1 nephelometer or pDR at (nearly) each home
    • Recursive modeling for outdoor contribution to indoor PM
  • Time-activity diary
    • From every subject everyday, 10-min resolution
    • For estimating exposures to ambient originated PM
  • Personal sampling:
    • 2/d, 2 HPEMs/subject (Teflon for XRF, quartz for EC/OC)
slide28

Exposure Assessment - continued

  • Indoor Monitoring
    • Real-time PM, 1 nephelometer or pDR at (nearly) each home
    • Recursive modeling for outdoor contribution to indoor PM
  • Time-activity diary
    • From every subject everyday, 10-min resolution
    • For estimating exposures to ambient originated PM
  • Personal Sampling:
    • 2/d, 2 HPEMs/subject (Teflon for XRF, quartz for EC/OC)
  • Urine Sample Collection and smoked food diary
    • Daily urine samples from the 2 intensive monitoring subj
    • 2 urine samples per day from all subjects during episodes
  • House ventilation logs
    • from intensive subjects
subject characteristics
Subject Characteristics

Age and drop-out rate

Asthma Severity

samples collected
Samples Collected
  • 25 lab measures of eNO and 25 paired lab measures of spirometry on each of the 32 subjects.
  • 190 PM2.5 Teflon samples (12-h)
  • 118 PM2.5 EC/OC samples (12-h)
  • 92 EC/OC samples w/ carbon foam (12-h)
  • 73 personal PM2.5 and 73 personal EC/OC samples (24-h)
  • 43 home outdoor PM2.5 samples
  • 93 aldehyde samples (24-h)
episodes declaration
Episodes Declaration
  • An initial criterion was established in which 5 or more 30-min average PM2.5 concentrations (as measured by TEOM) > 40 g/m3 during any 24-hour period.
  • Sufficient indication of agricultural burning smoke impacts were detected based on
    • TEOM, DataRAM, and neph, visual observation, current and predicted meteorological conditions, and burn calls in the surrounding region.
slide32

Lincoln

WASHINGTON

Kootenai

Spokane

Adams

Grant

Benewah

Latah

CDA Tribe

IDAHO

Franklin

Walla Walla

Whitman

Columbia

Source: WA DOE

slide33

PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the central site

(Dana Hall) during the present study

10/17-19 episode

9/11-15 2 episodes

*

10/9-11 sham

slide35
Concentrations of PM2.5 (from DOE nephelometer) and PM10 (from TEOM at the Dana Hall site) during September and October 2000
slide36

Concentrations of PM2.5 (from DOE nephelometer)

and PM10 (from TEOM at the Dana Hall site) during

September and October 2001

10/17-19 episode

9/11-15 2 episodes

*

10/9-11 sham

slide37

Missed episode?

Real episode

Real episode

Missed episode?

“Sham” episode

slide38

HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ

Night Day Night Day

Real episode October 17, 18 & 19

slide39

HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ HIFQ HIMQ

Night Day Night Day

‘Sham” episode October 9, 10 & 11

HIFQ = Harvard Impactor for PM2.5 with Quartz filter HIMQ= Harvard Impactor for PM2.5 with Foam +Quartz filter

summary
Summary

Episodes

    • 2 real (Sept 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 and October 17, 18 & 19)
    • 1 “sham” (October 9, 10 & 11)
    • 2 missed (Sept 24, 25 & 26 and October 24, 25 & 26)

Most of the time

  • PM2.5 correlated to PM10
  • Temperature negatively correlated to PM

During episodes

  • NOx correlated to PM
  • CO2 correlated to PM2.5
summary1
Summary
  • Range of exposures observed was reasonably representative of conditions during Ag burning
  • Spatial variability was prominent
  • Sampling scheme allowed for estimations of ambient contribution to personal PM
  • There is a good likelihood that we can answer the questions regarding extent of health effects under such typical conditions, using the data collected
data analysis status
Data Analysis Status
  • Data entry and QC: completed
  • Preliminary data analysis: ongoing
  • Ag burning smoke characterization: ongoing
  • Exposure characterization and modeling: Aug-Dec
  • Health effects analyses: Aug-Dec
acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • Study subjects
  • EPA/Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health Effects
  • WA Department of Ecology
  • U.S. EPA, Region 10
slide48

SO2 (ppb) at the central site

*

9/11-15

10/17-19

10/9-11

slide50

NOx (ppb) at the central site

9/11-15

10/17-19

*

10/9-11