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Biology. Chapter 7 Section 3. Key Ideas. What makes cells and organisms different? How are cells organized in a complex multicellular organism? What makes an organism truly multicellular?. Diversity in Cells. Prokaryotes are always unicellular and limited in size.

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Biology

Biology

Chapter 7 Section 3


Key ideas
Key Ideas

  • What makes cells and organisms different?

  • How are cells organized in a complex multicellular organism?

  • What makes an organism truly multicellular?


Diversity in cells
Diversity in Cells

  • Prokaryotes are always unicellular and limited in size.

  • Eukaryotes are often larger and can be either unicellular or multicellular.

  • Different organelles and features of cells enable organisms to function in unique ways in different environments.


Diversity in prokaryotes
Diversity in Prokaryotes

  • They can vary in shape, the way they obtain and use energy, the makeup of their cell walls, and their ability to move.

  • To move they either use flagella (long, threadlike structure) or pili (short, thick outgrowths that allow them to attach to surfaces)


Diversity in eukaryotes
Diversity in Eukaryotes

  • Animal and plant cells

  • Have many of the same organelles, but plant cells also have chloroplasts, central vacuole, and cell wall.

  • Structure varies according to their function.

  • Their internal makeup of cells are specialized for certain functions. Example: muscle cells, which use large amounts of energy, have many mitochondria.


Levels of organization
Levels of Organization

  • Plants and animals have many highly specialized cells that are arranged into tissues, organs, and organ systems.


Tissues
Tissues

  • Tissue: a distinct group of cells that have similar structures and functions.

  • Example: muscle tissue is a group of many cells that have bundles of cytoskeletal structures.


Organs
Organs

  • Different tissues may be arranged into an organ, which is a specialized structure that has a specific function.

  • Example: the heart is an organ made of muscle, nerve, and other tissues.


Organ system
Organ System

  • Various organs that carry out a major body function that make up an organ system.

  • Example: The circulatory system is made up of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.


Body types
Body Types

  • Single cells can not grow larger than a certain size, multicellular organisms can be large.

  • A multicellular organism is composed of many individual, permanently associated cells that coordinate their activities.

  • Distinct types of cells have specialized functions that help the organism survive.


Cell groups
Cell Groups

  • Some unicellular organisms can thrive independently, but others live in groups.

  • Cells that live as a connected group but do not depend on each other for survival are considered colonial organisms.


Multicellularity
Multicellularity

  • True multicellularity occurs only in eukaryotes.

  • The cells of a multicellular body perform highly specific functions.

  • Most multicellular organisms begin as a single cell.

  • The specialized cells are arranged into tissues, organs, and organ systems, making up the entire organism.