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# Flight Planning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Flight Planning. Plan the flight, fly the plan. Technique. 1. Plot Course a. Get true course b. Select checkpoints (9 – 22nm) c. Start nav log 2- Weather briefing a. Go/no-go decision b. Adjust route if necessary c. Select altitude 3- Performance Calculations a. Wt/Bal

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Flight Planning' - sarah-todd

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Presentation Transcript

### Flight Planning

Plan the flight, fly the plan

1. Plot Course

a. Get true course

b. Select checkpoints (9 – 22nm)

c. Start nav log

2- Weather briefing

a. Go/no-go decision

c. Select altitude

3- Performance Calculations

a. Wt/Bal

b. Takeoff/ldg dist

c. Time/fuel/dist to climb

d. Time/fuel in cruise

e. Complete nav log

4- File if desired and execute

• Using your plotter, draw a line from center of departure point to center of destination airport

• Look for hazards along your route

• Special Use Airspace

• Terrain

• Large bodies of water

• Lay plotter down with top edge along route

• Place center on a line of longitude

• Read true course on East or West scale

• Mark mileage in 5 or 10 mile intervals on your route

• Example: SBN to SMD (Smith Field in Fort Wayne)

• What makes a good checkpoint?

• Precision

• An intersection of two roads is more precise than the point where your course is supposed to intersect a road

• Visibility

• Radio towers make poor checkpoints because they are difficult to see from the air

• Airports make great checkpoints because they are very easy to see from the air

• Distinctiveness

• Using a lake as a checkpoint when flying across New Mexico makes sense

• Using a lake as a checkpoint when flying across east Texas increases your odds of mistakenly identifying your checkpoint

• Selecting the first checkpoint

• Should be within 5-10 miles of departure point

• Select additional checkpoints every 9 – 22 miles thereafter

• Example:

• I chose the following checkpoints:

• Golden Dome / Basilica (initial point)

• Bypass road south of Elkhart

• Syracuse

• Merriam

• Get a weather briefing from an official source

• 1-800-WX-BRIEF

• DUAT or DUATS

• Make a go/no-go decision

• “VFR flight not recommended”

• Winds

• MVFR or IFR clouds and weather

• Convective activity

• Precipitation

• Select altitude

• Winds Aloft will inform this decision

• Weight and Balance

• Weight information will be required for performance calculations

• Example: Assume max gross weight

• Takeoff / Landing distance

• Ensure your aircraft is capable of making it out of your departure airport and in/out of your destination airport

• Time / Fuel / Distance to Climb

• Cessna charts make this calculation very simple

• Take value at your cruise altitude and subtract value from departure pressure altitude

• Make approximations as appropriate

• There is no need calculate to a level of precision beyond what is given in the chart

• Therefore, find:

• Time to the nearest minute

• Fuel to the nearest tenth gallon

• Distance to the nearest mile

• Time / Fuel / Distance to Climb Example

• Climb from SBN (799 ft) to 4,500 ft

• Weather:

• SBN 07010G15 10SM CLR 13/M02 A2997

• Approximations

• Difference between pressure alt. & true alt is 50 feet, negligible

• Difference between SBN elevation and 1000 foot entries is negligible

• Values for 4,500 feet (by interpolation)

• Time: 7 min

• Fuel: 1.7 (conservative estimates dictate rounding up)

• Distance: 10 miles (only valid in zero wind)

• Values for 1,000 feet

• Time: 1 min

• Fuel: 0.4 gal

• Distance: 2 miles

• Climb totals

• Time: (7 – 1) = 6 minutes

• Fuel (1.7 - .4 ) = 1.3 (+ 1.1 for tax & takeoff) = 2.4 gal

• Wind is nonzero, so note avg climb speed: 76 knots

• Before we can complete nav log, we need to find our top of climb (TOC) & top of descent (TOD) points

• Procedure

• Use Winds Aloft to find groundspeed

• Use time-to-climb to find distance

• Example

• Winds Aloft

3000 6000

FWA 0416 3615

• For climb, use winds at 3000

• Interpolate: winds at cruise altitude (4,500) are 020 at 16

• E6-B

• Turn to wind side

• Set wind direction (040) opposite true index

• Mark wind velocity (16) up from grommet

• Set true course (123) opposite true index

• Slide the TAS arc (76) under the wind dot

• Read ground speed under grommet (72)

• Read wind correction angle at wind dot (12 deg left)

• Top of Climb point

• Turn to computer side of E6-B

• First question: How fast?

• 72 (our calculated groundspeed for the climb)

• Earlier, we computed the climb would take 6 minutes

• Read distance (7.2) above minute (6) scale

• For the mathematically astute, 6 minutes is 1/10 of an hour, so the TOC distance is a tenth of our groundspeed

• Top of Descent point

• Figure a 500 foot per minute descent

• From 4500 to 1800 (Traffic Pattern Altitude at SMD) is a 2700 foot descent, or 5.4 minutes

• 130 knots is a good descent airspeed in the 172

• Use same winds (040 at 16)

• Flip to wind side of E6-B

• Wind dot is still valid; slide up to 130 knot TAS arc

• Read groundspeed under grommet (127)

• Read WCA under wind dot (7 deg left)

• Flip to computer side of E6-B

• How fast?

• 127 knots

• Read descent distance (11.5 miles) over descent time (5.4 minutes)

• Check cruise performance to find TAS and GPH en route

• Plan on max continuous power setting (75% BHP)

• Temperature is standard

• 500 foot difference on performance chart is negligible

• Use 4000 foot data

• KTAS is 114 knots

• GPH is 8.6

Complete Nav Log

• Measure distances between each checkpoint

• Don’t forget to factor in your TOC and TOD points

• Fill in each checkpoint and leg distance

• Compute cruising groundspeed

• Find cruising wind correction angle

• Apply magnetic variation

• Find ETE between checkpoints

• Find fuel consumption between checkpoints

Complete Nav Log

• Example: Find cruising ground speed

• (Previously interpolated) winds are 020 at 16

• Go to wind side of E6-B

• Set wind direction (020) opposite true index

• Mark wind velocity (16) up from grommet

• Set true course (123) opposite true index

• Slide TAS arc (114) under wind dot

• Read groundspeed under grommet (116)

• Read WCA under wind dot (8 deg left)

Complete Nav Log

• Apply WCA to True Course

• -L, +R

• Apply magnetic variation

• A check of the sectional indicates one isogonic line along route of flight, +5 deg W

• -E, +W (East is least, West is best)

• This is as far as we can go until we look at the compass card in the aircraft

Complete Nav Log

• Example (cont)

• Find ETE between checkpoints

• Already computed ETE (6 min) and fuel consumption (2.4 gal) to TOC point

• Fill values in on nav log

• Flip to computer side of E6-B

• How fast? 116 knots

• Round off to nearest minute

• Find fuel consumption between checkpoints

• E6-B

• How fast? 8.6 GPH

• Read fuel consumed over minutes scale

• Round to nearest tenth gallon

• Subtract en route fuel from total

• Assume a full fuel load (53 gal)