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Reducing Prejudice and Promoting Justice: Can It Be Measured?. Evetth Gonzalez & Carol Lundberg Azusa Pacific University. Session Overview. & Learning Objectives. Participants with leave with:. 3.

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Reducing Prejudice and Promoting Justice:

Can It Be Measured?

Evetth Gonzalez & Carol Lundberg

Azusa Pacific University


Session Overview

& Learning Objectives

Participants with leave with:


This session presents an assessment of campus programs with goals of reducing prejudice and promoting justice. Based on Zúñiga’s (2005) assessment model, the session focuses on how one campus identified experiences and involvements that contribute effectively to social justice outcomes in students. Participants will work together to identify strategies for similar assessment at their campuses.

One model for assessing social justice behaviors and the programs designed to promote them


Programs and practices their colleagues use for assessing social justice learning


A link to a reference list with sources and models for further assessment needs


Reason, R.D., Roosa Millar, E. A., & Scales, T.C. (2005). Toward a model of racial justice ally development

For the first time in my life I was involved in the theater so for the first time in my life I was surrounded by a very high percentage of homosexual population . . . I was among a very small minority that were straight, so it was just the way it was. And I met these phenomenal people that were gay, and it just had never occurred to me that what I had said before might have been, like “Oh, that’s so gay,” that type of stuff became, “Oh, wow, this is somebody that I care about, and they’re hurt by it.” I think it was almost an unconscious thing. I just became more aware through the experiences that I had. So that was one way. I think that probably opened the door to my racial sensitivity, through sexual identity. . . (Reason, Roosa Millar, & Scales, 2005, p. 540).

The development of social justice allies during college: A phenomenological investigation

Broido, E. M (2000)

The thing that’s made the biggest difference for me, and it’s the hardest thing for so many people to do, particularly people who are in an empowered position in society, is to actually try to see [myself] in somebody else’s shoes (Broido, 2000, p.11).

The development of social justice allies during college: A phenomenological investigation

Broido, E. M (2000)

It was tough at first—especially being younger, being a freshman or sophomore, looking up to all the people. It’s hard to yell at a senior, when I’m a freshman, who’s making a racist comment. . . . I can tell them how I feel, but it’s hard to feel empowered enough to do that. Not even because of the age difference, just because of the experience difference. If someone [has been] in college for 4 years and here I’m this first-year student, it’s tough to do. But now that I’m a little bit older it’s become easier (Broido, 2000, p. 12).


Overview of Literature

Growing Diversity and the Importance of Multicultural Awareness

Racial/Cultural Engagement & Multicultural Competence

“students’ awareness and knowledge about diversity issues and motivation to participate in activities that promote racial understanding” (Zúñiga et. al., 2005, p.661)

The Importance of Multicultural Centers & Their Initiatives




Link to extended Literature Review available online

the impact of student involvement with campus diversity 2005
The Impact of Student Involvement WithCampus Diversity (2005)

Zúñiga, Williams, Berger


“This study examines whether college students’ participation in diversity related experiences instills motivation to take actions for a diverse democracy. Results suggest that interactions with diverse peers, participation in diversity-related courses, and activities inside and outside residence halls inspire students to challenge their own prejudices and promote inclusion and social justice.” (p. 660)

  • Grounded in literature and past methods, namely Milem & Umbach (2003) and Astin (1993).
  • Focused on residential community at large, predominantly White, public university.
  • Achieved over 50% of target population
  • Conducted pre-testing
  • Instrument was specific to institution and extensive

Multi Ethnic Programs at APU

Vision Statement: “seeks to cultivate a culture that values and embraces ethnic diversity”

Mission Statement: The Office of Multi Ethnic Programs (MEP) holds as its primary mission to support the university’s larger mission of God-honoring diversity. MEP designs and implements a continuum of programs and services that promote recruitment and retention, leadership development, and the pursuit of academic success and graduation. MEP’s efforts expand cultural awareness and create an open and inclusive environment for all students, faculty, and staff in order to promote and model racial reconciliation, unity, and an appreciation of all cultures

Learning Outcomes: “ability to (1) engage in healthy interactions with others that enhance their understanding and appreciation of personal and cultural differences and (2) articulate why embracing God honoring diversity and reconciliation are integral components of being a disciple of Christ,”

conceptual framework

Demographic Characteristics

  • Race
  • Economic Status
  • Gender
  • MEP Participation
  • Scholars
    • MEL Scholar
    • Telacu Scholar
  • Ethnic Organizations
    • Leader
    • Participant
  • MEP Leadership
    • MESA Co-leader
  • MEP Events
    • Participant/
    • Volunteer
    • Spectator
  • MEP Office Involvement
    • Regular student patron


Motivation to

Reduce Own


Motivation to


Inclusion &

Social Justice

  • College Characteristics
    • Year in School
  • Curricular Involvement
  • Immersion program (ex. LA Term) participation
  • Diversity courses taken
Conceptual Framework

Effects of Student Participation in Multi Ethnic Programs Initiatives on Action-Oriented Democratic Outcomes



119 individuals after removal of missing/invalid data, 125 originally.

All current students (every grade level) ranging in age from 18-27 involved in some way with MEP.

MEL Scholars (n=27), Telacu Scholars (n=13), Ethnic Organization members (n=65) including leaders (n=16) and participants (n=49); past and present MESA Co-leaders (n=5), event participants (n=85), event spectators (N=94), and students that are regularly in the office (N=19).

73% female and 27% male. Nearly every ethnic categorization except Native/Alaskan Native.


Action Oriented Objectives and Scales Used

Scale Two: Motivation to Promote Inclusion and Social Justice

Scale One: Motivation to Reduce Own Prejudices

  • Participate in derogatory jokes about others?
  • Take the initiative to learn about other cultures?
  • Recognize your own biases of others?
  • Use language that reinforces negative stereotypes?
  • Challenge others on racially/sexually derogatory comments
  • Join an organization that promotes cultural diversity
  • Organize an educational program to inform others about social issues
  • Challenge others who make jokes that are derogatory to any group
  • Call newspaper or T.V. show perpetuates or reinforces or write to protest when a a bias or prejudice
  • Make efforts to get to know individuals from diverse backgrounds
  • Get together with others to challenge discrimination

Link to actual instrument available online

group discussion
Group Discussion

Sharing Programs & Assessment Methods

  • Groups of 4 or 5
  • Identify programs that reduce prejudice and promote inclusion and social justice
  • How are these programs assessed?
  • Share promising strategies


  • Outcome 1: Motivation to Reduce Own Prejudices
  • Scale One – 4 items – not reliable (α = .309)
    • Blocked Hierarchal Regression produced 1 predictor –
    • Taking diversity/intercultural classes. (Beta = .057, p = .012,
  • Outcome 2: Motivation to Promote Inclusion & Social Justice
  • Scale Two – 7 items – reliable (α = .796)
    • Blocked Hierarchal Regression produces 5 predictors and 32% of variance–
    • 1.Black Women’s United member – (Beta = .491, p = .021)
    • 2. Latin American Student Association member (Beta = .224, p = .044)
    • 3. Diversity/Intercultural classes taken (Beta = .146, p = .000)
    • 4. *Negative – Participation in MEP events (Beta = -.102, .032)
outcome two motivation to promote inclusion and social justice
Outcome Two: Motivation to Promote Inclusion and Social Justice

Means based on MEP Involvements


Discussion and Recommendations

Changes Implemented

Importance of Diversity/Intercultural Classes

The only constant predictor noted in both scales was diversity/intercultural classes taken which supports Zuniga’s research that when co-curricular and curricular diversity initiatives on campuses are combined, they, “maximize the benefits of campus diversity by preparing graduates who will be more likely to take responsibility for issues of inclusion and social justice in society,” (Zúñiga, et. al., 2005, p. 672)


Ethnic Organizations and Social Initiatives

Ethnic Organizations and specifically BWU & LASA were found to be major predictors of promoting inclusion and social justice which supports much of the literature on the importance of Multicultural centers and ethnic organizations. (Hurtado, et. al., 1998)


Changes Made to MEL Program

The fact that MEL scholars responded all across the board supports the recent decision to make the scholarship more exclusive, to create a smaller cohort model, and to put more emphasis on justice and service.



No cross-checking on items in scales

Need for longitudinal study


Missing rich description of qualitative aspect


About the Office - Multi-Ethnic Programs (MEP) - Azusa Pacific University. (n.d.). A Top Christian college in southern California - Azusa Pacific University. Retrieved February 27, 2011, from

Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college: Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Broido, E. M (2000). The development of social justice allies during college: A phenomenological investigation. Journal of College Student Development,41(1), 3-18.

Hurtado, S., Milem, J., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W. (1998). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity: Educational policy and practice. The Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 279-302.

Multi-Ethnic Programs (MEP) - Azusa Pacific University. (n.d.). A top Christian college in southern California - Azusa Pacific University. Retrieved February 27, 2011, from

Reason, R.D., Broido, E.M., Davis, T.L., & Evans, N.J. (2005). Developing social justice allies. In J.H. Schuh & E.J. Whitt (Series Eds.), New Directions for Student Services, No. 110.

Reason, R.D., Roosa Millar, E. A., & Scales, T.C. (2005). Toward a model of racial justice ally development. Journal of College Student Development, 46(5),530-546.

Zúñiga, X., Williams, E. A., & Berger, J. B. (2005). Action-Oriented democratic outcomes: the impact of student. Journal of College Student Development,46(6), 660-678.



For complete list of materials visit

Evetth Gonzalez

Carol Lundberg