Charter Schools By: Jenna Tharp firstname.lastname@example.org
What are Charter Schools? • Charter schools operate under charters issued by the local school board, public university, or state board of education and typically have more flexibility in making decisions. Charter schools have more autonomy than most public schools, but are held to higher standards of accountability. Charters are typically issued for 3-5 years, but can be withdrawn before that period of time if schools are not performing at the desired standards.
Purpose of Charter Schools • According to Why Charter Schools are Founded (1997), the six reasons for founding charter schools are: • “(1) to advance an educational vision; • (2) to have more autonomy over organizational, personnel, or governance matters; • (3) to serve a special population; • (4) for financial reasons; • (5) to engender parent involvement and ownership; • (6) to attract students and parents.”
Purpose of Charter Schools continued… • Charter Schools are intended to: • Increase opportunities for learning and access to quality education for all students; • Create choice for parents and students within the public school systems; • Provide a system of accountability for results in public education; • Encourage innovative teaching practices; • Create new professional opportunities for teachers; • Encourage community and parent involvement in public education; • Leverage improved public education broadly.
History of Charter Schools • 1988 • Albert Shanker-American Federation of Teachers • Ray Budde • Concept of charter schools • 1991 • First charter school law-Minnesota • Since then, 42 other states • Of these 42, 37 include working charter schools • April 2006 • 3,500 charter schools
Charter Schools Supporters Critics Thought to only serve wealthy white students, encouraging segregation. May need to be closed, preventing continuous education. Children with disabilities or English Language Learners (ELLs) may not receive proper education, because charter schools are not required to follow same rules and regulations of public schools. Will take away brightest and best students. Take away funding per student. • Parents and students have more options. • Create competition for public schools. • Do not follow rules and regulations of public schools. • Quality education that is more affordable than private school. • A way of improvement and discovery for education in: • Development • Curriculum • Organization • Effective distribution of instruction
Funding • Don’t receive much in local funds • Typically receive less than the district schools • Local Education Agencies (LEA’s) • Typically through a district school and are charged a fee • Federal Funds
Religion in Charter Schools • Like public schools, they may not involve religion in any part of their curriculum, admissions, or other operations of the school. • Are allowed to teach, but must be from a secular viewpoint. • Activities must not involve religion. • May not be any religious activities performed, endorsed, or supported by employees or others involved with charter schools. • Have the option to partner with a religious organization, as long as decision does not look like an endorsement to religion. • Charter schools may use facilities of a religious based group, as long as, the programs taught do not involve religion
Extra Curricular Activities • Some charter schools provide extra curricular activities, some do not. • For those that do not, law states that students may participate at a public school, but have to pay a fee and there must be an agreement between student and school.
Impact of No Child Left Behind Act • President Bush stated, in 2002, that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was made to ensure that all school age children were performing at their grade level in areas such as math and reading. Not only is the federal government helping children who have special needs, they are trying to make sure that every child receives an equal education, and that they will reach the goals mandated.
Impact of No Child Left Behind Act Continued… • If receiving Title 1 funds, charter schools must meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals that are set by the state, measuring the proficiency of what students have learned. • Responsibility for checking progress lies within the entity that authorized the charter. • Charter schools use a lottery system if there are more students that apply than the school has room to admit. • Lottery may be weighted to admit students under the Title 1 school choice option.
References • Buckley, J., & Schneider, M. (2007). Charter schools hope or hype? In J. Buckley, & M. Schneider, Charter Schools Hope or Hype? (p. 1). Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Bulkley, K. E., & Wohlstetter, P. (2004). Taking account of charter schools. New York: Teachers College Press. • Charter schools program title V, part B non-regulatory guidance. (2004, July). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/cspguidance03.pdf • Charter schools pros and cons. (n.d.). Retrieved from Education Commission of the States: http://www.ecs.org/html/IssueSection.asp?issueid=20&s=Pros+%26+Cons • Chubb, J. E., Finn Jr., C. E., Hill, P. T., Hoxby, C. M., Osberg, E., Peterson, P. E., . . . Torinus, N. (2006). Charter schools against the odds. In J. E. Chubb, C. E. Finn Jr., P. T. Hill, C. M. Hoxby, E. Osberg, P. E. Peterson, . . . N. Torinus, Charter Schools Against the Odds (pp. 55-59). Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. • Extra-curricular and interscholastic activities eligibility and access. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Alliance for Public Charter Schools: http://charterlaws.publiccharters.org/charterlaws/component/16 • Hayes, W. (2008). No child left behind past, present, and future. In W. Hayes, No Child Left Behind Past, Present, and Future. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
References Continued… • Hill, P. T., & Lake, R. J. (2010). The charter school catch-22. Journal of School Choice, 232-235. History of public schools. (2011). Retrieved from Educationbug: http://www.educationbug.org/a/history-of-public-schools.html • Irons, E. J., & Harris, S. (2007). The challenges of no child left behind. In E. J. Irons, & S. Harris, The challenges of no child left behind (pp. 78-83). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Education. • No child left behind: New evidence that charter schools help even kids in other schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703574604574499592392782438.html • The impact of the new title I requirements on charter schools. (2004, July). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/charterguidance03.pdfSchool finance. (2011, June 20). Retrieved from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/school-finance/ • Why charter schools are founded. (1997). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/charter/chap4b.html • Yamashiro, K., & Carlos, L. (2005). More on Charter Schools. Retrieved from WestEd: http://www.wested.org/policy/pubs/full_text/pb_ft_more.htm